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USMLE | Respiratory System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

    • airways, including mechanics and regulation of breathing
    • lung parenchyma, including ventilation, perfusion, gas exchange pleura
    • nasopharynx, sinuses

Cell/tissue structure and function, including surfactant formation, and alveolar structure

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders

infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders of the upper airways: acute upper respiratory infection; viral infections (adenovirus, coronaviruses, coxsackievirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, rhinoviruses); sinusitis; nasopharyngitis; epiglottitis; croup; acute laryngitis; acute laryngotracheitis; tracheitis; pharyngitis; streptococcal throat infections; tonsillitis; peritonsillar abscess; rhinitis, allergic, chronic; ulcers of nasal cavity/sinuses

infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders of the lower airways: hospital-acquired pneumonia; ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis; bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP); anthrax, pulmonary (Bacillus anthracis); aspiration pneumonia, pneumonitis; bronchitis, acute; bronchopneumonia; pneumonia (Bordetella pertussis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pulmonary tuberculosis, Streptococcus, MSSA, MRSA, other gram-negative bacteria); viral infection (eg, influenza A, B, adenovirus, H1N1, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus); fungal infection (aspergillosis, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis); lung abscess; viral infection (eg, influenza A, B, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, avian influenza virus); fungal infection (aspergillosis, including allergic

    • bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis)

Neoplasms

    • benign neoplasms: upper airways (eg, vocal cord polyps, nasal polyps, juvenile papillomatosis); lungs and pleura (eg, solitary pulmonary nodule, bronchial carcinoid tumors)
    • malignant neoplasms
      • upper airways: lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; head and neck cancer; larynx; trachea
      • lower airways and pleura: malignant neoplasms of bronchus and/or lung (squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell, small cell); malignant neoplasms of pleura (mesothelioma); secondary malignant neoplasms of lung; secondary malignant neoplasms of pleura
    • metastatic neoplasms including pleural

Obstructive airway disease: asthma, reactive airway disease; bronchiectasis; chronic airway obstruction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema

Pneumoconiosis/fibrosing/restrictive pulmonary disorders/interstitial lung disease: pneumoconiosis; asbestosis; silicosis; silo-filler's lung, byssinosis, bagassosis, berylliosis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; hypereosinophilic syndromes, Loeffler syndrome; interstitial pneumonia, usual (UIP), desquamative (DIP), nonspecific

Respiratory failure/respiratory arrest and pulmonary vascular disorders: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary vascular disorders, arteriovenous fistula; pulmonary edema, pulmonary cause and unspecified; pulmonary embolism; air and fat embolism; respiratory failure due to enteral feeding

Metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders: disorders of gas exchange; hypoventilation; hypoxia; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; ventilation-perfusion imbalance

Disorders of the pleura, mediastinum, and chest wall: chylothorax; costochondritis; empyema; hemothorax; mediastinitis; pleural effusion; pleuritis; pneumomediastinum; pneumothorax

Traumatic and mechanical disorders

    • upper airways: epistaxis; barotrauma, sinus; laryngeal/pharyngeal obstruction; tracheoesophageal fistula; tracheal stenosis; tracheomalacia; trauma (eg, tracheal injury); foreign body (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea); traumatic/mechanical disorders of the nasal cavity/sinuses (eg, septal perforation)
    • lower airways and pleura: atelectasis; diaphragm/chest wall  injury; drowning and near- drowning; foreign body, upper and lower respiratory tract; penetrating chest wounds; pulmonary contusion; sleep apnea, obstructive and central; hypoventilation syndrome, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome

Congenital disorders: bronchogenic cysts; congenital cysts; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; pulmonary sequestration; immotile cilia syndrome

Adverse effects of drugs on the respiratory system: bleomycin, amiodarone; adverse effects of 100% oxygen; tobacco, inhalants, cocaine


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