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USMLE | Renal & Urinary System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

    • kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra glomerular filtration and hemodynamics urine concentration and dilution
    • renal mechanisms in acid-base balance
    • renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis micturition

Cell/tissue structure and function

    • renal metabolism and oxygen consumption
    • tubular reabsorption and secretion, including transport processes and proteins hormones produced by or acting on the kidney (eg, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin)

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders

    • upper urinary tract: granulomatous pyelonephritis; perinephric abscess; pyelonephritis; pyonephrosis; renal abscess; renal tuberculosis
    • lower urinary tract and urinary tract infections of unspecified location: cystitis; urethritis, chlamydial and nonchlamydial

Immunologic and inflammatory disorders upper urinary tract

    • glomerular disorders: Alport syndrome; glomerular disease due to hepatitis B, C; glomerulonephritis, including poststreptococcal; IgA nephropathy; lupus nephritis; minimal change disease; nephrotic syndrome; thin basement membrane disease
    • tubular interstitial disease: acute tubular necrosis (ATN); acute interstitial nephritis; papillary necrosis; HIV nephropathy

lower urinary tract: interstitial cystitis

Neoplasms

    • benign neoplasms and cysts
    • malignant neoplasms: renal (eg, Wilms tumor/nephroblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, renal tumors associated with congenital/hereditary conditions); urinary bladder and collecting system

Signs, symptoms, and ill-defined disorders: dysuria; hematuria; oliguria, anuria; proteinuria

Metabolic and regulatory disorders: acute kidney injury; renal insufficiency; azotemia, uremic syndrome; chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease; cystinuria; Fanconi syndrome; hypertensive renal disease (renal complications of hypertension); renal calculi, ureteral calculi, nephrolithiasis; renal tubular acidosis

Vascular disorders: renal artery stenosis (atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, nephrosclerosis); renal vein thrombosis; renal infarction

Traumatic and mechanical disorders: bladder rupture; neurogenic bladder; obstructive uropathy; posterior urethral valves; renal laceration; renal vascular injury; ureteral laceration/avulsion/disruption; urethral diverticulum; urethral/ureteral obstruction/stricture/prolapse; urinary incontinence, including secondary enuresis; vesicoureteral reflux

Congenital disorders: double ureters/ureteral duplication/double collecting system; horseshoe kidney; hydronephrosis/reflux; renal agenesis, renal hypoplasia, renal dysplasia; single kidney

Adverse effects of drugs on the renal and urinary system: ACE inhibitors; aminoglycosides; amphotericin B; cisplatin; furosemide; gadolinium (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis); heroin; iodinated contrast dye; lithium; NSAIDs; penicillins; sulfa drugs; tenofovir; drug - induced urinary retention


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