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USMLE | Gastrointestinal System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

    • anatomy of the alimentary canal, including mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus, peritoneal cavity
    • liver and biliary system, including enterohepatic circulation salivary glands and exocrine pancreas
    • gastrointestinal motility, including defecation digestion and absorption

Cell/tissue structure and function

    • endocrine and neural regulatory functions, including GI hormones (eg, gastrin)
    • salivary, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic secretory products, including enzymes, proteins, bile salts, and processes
    • synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders

    • infectious disorders
      • bacterial: pseudomembranous colitis (Clostridium difficile); enteritis/enteric infections (includes gastroenteritis) (eg, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter species, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella species, Shigella species, traveler's/infectious diarrhea); hepatic abscess, subhepatic abscess, subphrenic abscess; peritonitis, primary and secondary; Whipple disease
      • viral: infectious esophagitis (eg, CMV, herpes); hepatitis A, B, C, D, E; coxsackievirus enteritis/colitis; Echovirus enteritis/colitis; rotavirus enteritis; mumps; gingivostomatitis, herpetic
      • fungal: thrush
      • parasitic: Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Isospora belli, Strongyloides stercoralis
    • immunologic and inflammatory disorders: autoimmune hepatitis; celiac disease; eosinophilic esophagitis; granulomatous enteritis; inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn disease, regional enteritis, microscopic colitis (collagenous and lymphocytic colitis), ulcerative colitis, toxic megacolon

Neoplasms

    • benign neoplasms, including polyps, cysts: stomach; small intestine; colon, rectum, and anus, including polyps
    • malignant neoplasms and pre-malignant conditions: oral cancer (eg, lips, mouth, tongue, salivary glands); esophageal, squamous and adenocarcinoma; Barrett esophagus; gastrinoma, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors; gastrointestinal stromal tumors; small intestine; stomach, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, MALT; colon, rectum, anus; hereditary colon cancer syndromes, familial adenomatous polyposis (eg, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Gardner syndrome, Turcot syndrome, ); MUTYH-associated polyposis; gallbladder, cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater; liver, including  hepatoma; peritoneal cancer, including metastatic studding with cancer; pancreas
    • metastatic neoplasms

Signs, symptoms, and ill-defined disorders: upper gastrointestinal bleeding; lower gastrointestinal bleeding; constipation; diarrhea; hematochezia; bright red rectal bleeding; melena; nausea, vomiting, rumination

Disorders of the oral cavity, salivary glands, and esophagus

    • oral cavity and salivary glands: abscessed tooth; dental caries; malocclusion; disorders of the salivary glands (eg, stones, sialadenitis, parotitis); teething syndrome
    • esophagus: achalasia and cardiospasm; dysphagia; diverticulum (eg, Zenker); esophageal periapical abscess without sinus; esophagitis/esophageal reflux (GERD); esophagitis, pill; Mallory-Weiss syndrome; paraesophageal (hiatal) hernia; stricture and stenosis of esophagus

Disorders of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus

    • stomach: dyspepsia/hyperacidity; gastric ulcer; gastritis; peptic ulcer; peptic ulcer perforation; gastroparesis
    • small intestine, colon: appendicitis; angiodysplasia; diverticula; duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer; gastroenteritis and colitis (noninfectious); granulomatous enterocolitis; Hirschsprung disease; impaction of intestine; intestinal obstruction/stricture; intussusception; irritable colon/irritable bowel syndrome; ischemic bowel; necrotizing enterocolitis; paralytic ileus; volvulus; malnutrition and malabsorption, including lactose intolerance, short bowel syndrome
    • rectum and anus: abscess of anal and rectal regions; anal fissure; anal fistula; ulcer; fecal incontinence; hemorrhage (rectum, anus); proctitis; hemorrhoids; rectal prolapse

Disorders of the liver and biliary system, noninfectious

    • liver: cirrhosis; Dubin-Johnson, Rotor syndromes; end-stage liver disease, including indications for transplantation; Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome; hepatic coma/hepatic encephalopathy; hepatitis, noninfectious; hepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic; hepatorenal syndrome; hepatopulmonary syndrome; jaundice; non- alcoholic fatty liver disease; portal hypertension/esophageal varices
    • biliary system: bile duct obstruction/cholestasis; cholangitis, including ascending; choledocholithiasis; cholelithiasis/cholecystitis; cholestasis due to parenteral nutrition; gallstone ileus; Mirizzi syndrome; primary biliary cirrhosis; primary sclerosing cholangitis

Disorders of the pancreas: pancreatitis, acute; pancreatitis, chronic; pancreatitis, hereditary; pancreatic cyst/pseudocyst; pancreatic duct obstruction; pancreatic

    • insufficiency

Disorders of the peritoneal cavity: ascites

Traumatic and mechanical disorders: abdominal wall defects; adhesions, postsurgical; digestive system complications of surgery; post-gastric surgery syndromes (eg, blind loop syndrome, adhesions); duodenal tear; foreign body in digestive system; inguinal, femoral, and abdominal wall hernias; open wound, abdominal; perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma; perforation/rupture of esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome); umbilical hernia

Congenital disorders: annular pancreas; biliary atresia; cleft lip and palate; esophageal atresia; malrotation without volvulus; Meckel diverticulum; pyloric stenosis, gastric outlet obstruction; tracheoesophageal fistula

Adverse effects of drugs on the gastrointestinal system: drug-induced changes in motility (chronic laxative abuse, opioids); drug-induced gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcer disease (NSAIDs); drug-induced hepatitis (eg, acetaminophen, isoniazid); drug-induced pancreatitis (eg, thiazide diuretics)


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