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USMLE | Endocrine System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

    • hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary gland thyroid gland
    • parathyroid gland
    • adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla pancreatic islets
    • ovary and testis adipose tissue

Cell/tissue/structure and function, including hormone synthesis, secretion, action, metabolism

    • peptide hormones
    • steroid hormones, including vitamin D
    • thyroid hormones catecholamine hormones renin-angiotensin system

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Diabetes mellitus and other disorders of the endocrine pancreas

    • diabetes mellitus: diabetes mellitus, type 1; diabetes mellitus, type 1.5; diabetes mellitus, type 2; diabetes mellitus, acute complications: hyperosmolar coma, hypoglycemic shock, ketoacidosis, including cerebral edema, associated electrolyte abnormalities; diabetes mellitus, chronic complications: gastrointestinal/gastroparesis, neurologic/neuropathy, ophthalmologic/retinopathy, peripheral vascular, renal/nephropathy, metabolic syndrome
    • hypoglycemia and islet cell disorders: hypoglycemia (secondary to insulinoma, surreptitious insulin use, sepsis, liver failure); hyperglycemia (secondary to glucagonoma); hyperinsulinism; islet cell tumors/insulinoma/somatostatinoma; pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Thyroid disorders: cyst, nodule; euthyroid sick syndrome; goiter (euthyroid-normal thyroid function with goiter); hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism, including thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm; thyroiditis, including Hashimoto; Graves disease; neoplasms (benign cysts and nodules, thyroid cancer including papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic); thyroid deficiency from pituitary disorder; infertility due to thyroid disease; secondary hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

Parathyroid disorders: hyperparathyroidism; hypoparathyroidism; metabolic bone disease

Adrenal disorders: corticoadrenal insufficiency (Addison disease); adrenal insufficiency, secondary; hypocortisolism; Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome; hyperaldosteronism; neoplasms, benign and malignant (adrenal neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenal carcinoma, adrenal adenoma, aldosteronoma, adrenal incidentaloma); delayed and precocious puberty; hypertensive endocrine disease

Pituitary disorders: acromegaly/gigantism; diabetes insipidus; galactorrhea not associated with childbirth; panhypopituitarism from any cause; pituitary apoplexy (eg, Sheehan syndrome); growth hormone deficiency; short stature; SIADH (inappropriate secretion of ADH [vasopressin]); neoplasm, benign and malignant (pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngioma, metastatic disease); prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia, including infertility due to these disorders; hypogonadism, primary and secondary

Hypothalamic endocrine disorders

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1, MEN2)

Congenital disorders: disorders of sexual differentiation; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; androgen insensitivity/resistance syndrome; congenital hypothyroidism

Adverse effects of drugs on the endocrine system: drug, medicinal, and biologic substance effects; exogenous steroid suppression of adrenal glands, anabolic steroids


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