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USMLE | Blood & Lymphoreticular System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

Cell/tissue structure and function

    • production and function of erythrocytes, including heme and hemoglobin synthesis;
    • hemoglobin O2 and CO2 transport, transport proteins, erythropoietin production and function of platelets
    • production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors; hemostasis

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious and immunologic

infectious disorders bacteria

    • viral: hemorrhagic fever (Ebola virus, Marburg virus); chikungunya; dengue fever
    • parasitic: malaria (Plasmodium spp); babesiosis (Babesia species)
    • primary infections of lymphoid tissue: lymphadenitis (viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic); lymphangitis; buboes, bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis); cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae)
    • immunologic and inflammatory disorders: cryoglobinemia, essential mixed cryoglobinemia; autoimmune hemolytic anemia; paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; hemolytic uremic syndrome

Neoplasms: leukemia, acute (ALL, AML); leukemia, chronic (CLL, CML); lymphomas, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma; multiple myeloma, dysproteinemias, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS); myelofibrosis; myelodysplastic syndrome, myelodysplasias; other immunoproliferative neoplasms (eg, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia)

Anemia, cytopenias, and polycythemia anemias

    • decreased production: anemia of chronic disease
    • hemolysis: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; pyruvate kinase deficiency
    • disorders of hemoglobin, heme, or membrane: disorders of red cell membranes; hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis; methemoglobinemia, congenital; sickle cell disease; sideroblastic anemia; thalassemias
    • other causes of anemia: blood loss, acute and chronic as a cause of anemia
    • cytopenias: aplastic anemia; leukopenia; neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; thrombocytopenia, quantitative; immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
    • cythemias: leukocytosis; polycythemia vera; secondary polycythemia

Coagulation disorders (hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable conditions)

    • hypocoagulable: disseminated intravascular coagulation; hemophilia, congenital factor VIII [hemophilia A] and IX [hemophilia B]; hypofibrinogenemia; von Willebrand disease; platelet dysfunction, qualitative
    • hypercoagulable: heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; other coagulopathies (eg, homocysteinemia, hypoplasminogenemia, antithrombin III, protein C/protein S deficiency, Factor V Leiden, anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, prothrombin G20210A mutation)
    • reactions to blood components: ABO incompatibility/anaphylaxis; Rh incompatibility/anaphylaxis; hemolysis, delayed; transfusion reaction; transfusion contaminated with bacteria; transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI); anaphylactoid reaction (IgA deficiency)
    • Traumatic, mechanical, and vascular disorders: mechanical injury to erythrocytes (eg, cardiac valve hemolysis); disorders of the spleen; splenic rupture/laceration; splenic infarct; splenic abscess; effects/complications of splenectomy (eg, sepsis due to encapsulated bacteria); hypersplenism
    • Congenital disorders
    • Adverse effects of drugs on the hematologic and lymphoreticular systems: antiplatelet drugs, antithrombin drugs (eg, dabigatran); chemotherapeutic agents; inhibitors of coagulation factors; methemoglobinemia, acquired; propylthiouracil; tumor lysis syndrome; warfarin

Copyright © 2015 by the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States, Inc. (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®). All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) is a joint program of the FSMB and the NBME.