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USMLE | Musculoskeletal System

Normal processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

Cell/tissue structure and function

    • biology of bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle, cartilage exercise and physical conditioning/deconditioning

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

    • infectious disorders: gangrene, dry and wet, clostridial myonecrosis (Clostridium perfringens); discitis; myositis, infective; necrotizing fasciitis; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis; spondylitis, tuberculous
    • immunologic disorders: ankylosing spondylitis; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis, Felty syndrome; psoriatic arthropathy
    • inflammatory disorders: adhesive capsulitis of shoulder (frozen shoulder syndrome); ankylosis/spondylopathy (inflammatory); bursitis; fasciitis; osteochondritis, osteochondritis dissecans; tendinitis, supraspinatus syndrome, enthesopathy of spine, elbow, ankle; temporomandibular joint disorders; fibrositis, myofascial pain syndrome; synovitis; tenosynovitis; myositis

Neoplasms: benign neoplasms (e.g., ganglion cyst); malignant neoplasms of bone (eg, osteosarcoma, sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma); metastases to bone, secondary malignant neoplasm of bone

Degenerative and metabolic disorders

    • degenerative/metabolic disorders of bone, tendon, and cartilage: chondromalacia; disc degeneration, herniated disc; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; Osgood-Schlatter disease; osteodystrophy; osteomalacia; osteonecrosis (avascular), bone infarct; osteoporosis; osteopenia; osteitis deformans (Paget disease of bone); pathologic fracture; spondylolisthesis/spondylosis (degenerative)
    • degenerative/metabolic disorders of joints: gout, gouty arthritis, pseudogout; joint effusion; osteoarthritis
    • degenerative/metabolic disorders of muscles, ligaments, fascia: Dupuytren contracture; muscle calcification and ossification; muscle wasting and diffuse atrophy; rhabdomyolysis

Traumatic and mechanical disorders: amputation and care of amputees; backache, including low back pain; blast injuries; contractures, hospital-acquired; contusions; dislocations; fractures; sprains, strains; kyphoscoliosis, scoliosis; rotator cuff syndrome; slipped capital femoral epiphysis; dislocation of hip

Congenital disorders: achondroplasia/dwarfism; disorders of limb development (HOX gene mutation, phocomelia); developmental dysplasia of the hip; dislocation of hip in infantile spinal muscular atrophy; genu valgum or varum; foot deformities (flat foot, valgus/varus deformities); osteogenesis imperfecta; McArdle disease; mitochondrial myopathies

Adverse effects of drugs on the musculoskeletal system: drug-induced myopathy (eg, steroids, statins, cocaine, AZT); malignant hyperthermia


Copyright © 2015 by the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States, Inc. (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®). All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) is a joint program of the FSMB and the NBME.