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USMLE | Cardiovascular System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal transitional changes

Organ structure and function

    • chambers, valves
    • cardiac cycle, mechanics, heart sounds, cardiac conduction hemodynamics, including blood volume and systemic vascular resistance circulation in specific vascular beds, including pulmonary and coronary

Cell/tissue structure and function

    • heart muscle, metabolism, oxygen consumption, biochemistry, and secretory function (eg, atrial natriuretic peptide)
    • endothelium and secretory function, vascular smooth muscle, microcirculation, and lymph flow
    • neural and hormonal regulation of the heart, blood vessels, and blood volume, including responses to change in posture, exercise, and tissue metabolism, and autonomic responses

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis

Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders: infective endocarditis, myocarditis immunologic and inflammatory disorders

Neoplasms: myxoma, metastases

Dysrhythmias: premature beats (PACs, PVCs); atrial flutter/fibrillation; multifocal atrial tachycardia; paroxysmal tachycardias; ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation; wide complex tachycardia; torsades des pointes; bradycardias; atrioventricular block (first-, second-, third-degree); conduction disorder (LBBB, RBBB); cardiac arrest; sick sinus syndrome; prolonged QT syndrome; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; carotid sinus hypersensitivity; pacemaker dysfunction, including failure to sense, capture

Heart failure: chordae tendineae rupture; congestive heart failure; cor pulmonale; diastolic dysfunction; systolic dysfunction; mitral valve dysfunction; heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction; high-output heart failure, including thyrotoxicosis-induced, anemia-induced; tachycardia, induced; cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Ischemic heart disease: acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction; angina pectoris, stable and unstable/coronary artery disease/coronary insufficiency; coronary artery spasm

Diseases of the myocardium: cardiomyopathy, dilated, including alcoholic, viral, takotsubo; cardiomyopathy, obstructive hypertrophic; cardiomyopathy, familial dilated; cardiomyopathy, restrictive; hypertensive heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy; complications of myocardial infarction; traumatic tamponade post-myocardial infarction; papillary muscle rupture/dysfunction; ventricular free wall rupture; myocarditis

Diseases of the pericardium: chronic constrictive pericardiopathy; pericardial effusion; pericardial tamponade; acute pericarditis; pericarditis, following myocardial infarction, surgery, trauma

Valvular heart disease: valve disorders, mitral/aortic/tricuspid/pulmonic; mitral valve prolapse; functional murmurs; rheumatic heart disease; complications of artificial valves

Hypotension: orthostatic hypotension

Hypertension: elevated blood pressure reading without diagnosis of hypertension; essential hypertension; malignant hypertension; secondary hypertension

Dyslipidemia: hypercholesterolemia; hyperlipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; lipoproteins/lipoprotein lipase deficiency

Vascular disorders

    • disorders of the great vessels: aneurysm, aortic (abdominal/thoracic), dissection, ruptured; aneurysm, iliac, other peripheral vascular, ruptured; aortoiliac disease
    • peripheral arterial vascular disease: arterial embolus/thrombosis; arteriovenous fistula; atheroembolic disease; claudication; compartment syndrome; cholesterol emboli; hypertensive vascular disease; peripheral arterial disease; thromboangiitis obliterans
    • diseases of the veins: deep venous thrombosis, venous thromboembolism; phlebitis/thrombophlebitis; varicose veins; venous insufficiency; stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis

Traumatic and mechanical disorders: ventricular puncture; myocardial contusion; lymphedema; myocardial rupture; traumatic aortic dissection

Congenital disorders, including disease in adults: anomalous left coronary artery; atrial septal defect; coarctation of the aorta; endocardial cushion defect; patent foramen ovale; patent ductus arteriosus; tetralogy of Fallot; transposition of the great vessels; ventricular septal defect

Adverse effects of drugs on the cardiovascular system: adriamycin; cocaine, amphetamine, PCP; ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, minoxidil


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