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Step 1 | 9 Renal/urinary System

9.1       Normal processes

9.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

9.1.2    organ structure and function     kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra     glomerular filtration and hemodynamics     tubular reabsorption and secretion, including transport processes and proteins     urinary concentration and dilution     renal mechanisms in acid-base balance     renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis     micturition

9.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function     renal metabolism and oxygen consumption     hormones produced by or acting on the kidney

9.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

9.2       Abnormal processes

9.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders     infectious disorders     upper urinary tract (eg, pyelonephritis, papillary necrosis)     lower urinary tract (eg, cystitis, urethritis)     inflammatory and immunologic disorders     glomerular disorders (eg, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, IgA nephropathy)     tubular interstitial disease (eg, interstitial nephritis)

9.2.2    traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, obstructive uropathy)

9.2.3    neoplastic disorders  primary  renal  urinary bladder and collecting system     metastases

9.2.4    metabolic and regulatory disorders     renal failure, acute and chronic (eg, acute tubular necrosis)     tubular and collecting duct disorders (eg, Fanconi syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, polycystic kidney disease)     renal calculi

9.2.5    vascular disorders (eg, renal artery stenosis)

9.2.6    systemic diseases affecting the renal system (eg, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, amyloid, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener granulomatosis)

9.3       Principles of therapeutics

9.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the renal and urinary system     diuretics, antidiuretic drugs     drugs and fluids used to treat volume, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders     drugs used to enhance renal perfusion (eg, dopamine)     anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, and antineoplastic drugs     drugs used to treat lower urinary tract system (eg, incontinence, bladder function, benign prostatic hyperplasia)

9.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, dialysis, renal transplantation)

9.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

9.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, drug-induced interstitial nephritis, diet)

9.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, hemodialysis, living related kidney donation, transplants)

9.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, heavy metals)

9.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, disease progression, urinary tract infections)