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Step 1 | 6 Respiratory System

6.1       Normal processes

6.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

6.1.2    organ structure and function     airways, including mechanics and regulation of breathing     lung parenchyma, including ventilation, perfusion, gas exchange     pleura     nasopharynx, sinuses

6.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function, including surfactant formation, alveolar structure

6.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

6.1.5    pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora

6.2       Abnormal processes

6.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders     infectious diseases     infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract (eg, sinusitis, pharyngitis)     acute infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract and pleura and their complications (eg, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, abscess, empyema)     chronic infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract (eg, Mycobacterium, endemic fungal infections, Nocardia/ Actinomyces)     immunologic disorders     allergic and hypersensitivity disorders (eg, asthma)     autoimmune disorders (eg, Wegener granulomatosis, Goodpasture syndrome)     inflammatory disorders     pneumoconioses     acute and chronic alveolar injury (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine gas/smoke inhalation)     obstructive pulmonary disease     restrictive pulmonary disease (eg, sarcoidosis, idiopathic fibrosis)

6.2.2    traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, foreign body aspiration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, sleep apnea)

6.2.3    neoplastic disorders     upper airway (eg, polyps)     lower airway and lung parenchyma (eg, bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoid tumors, bronchial adenoma)     pleura (eg, mesothelioma)     metastatic tumors

6.2.4    metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders (eg, hypoventilation, disorders of gas exchange, ventilation-perfusion imbalance, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome)

6.2.5    vascular and circulatory disorders     thromboembolic disease     pulmonary hypertension     pulmonary edema     pleural effusion

6.2.6    systemic disorders affecting the respiratory system

6.3       Principles of therapeutics

6.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the respiratory system     decongestants, cough suppressants, expectorants, mucolytics     bronchodilator drugs     anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic drugs     antimicrobial agents     antineoplastic agents

6.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, oxygen therapy, nasal CPAP, mechanical ventilation, physical therapy, surgical procedures, including transplantation)

6.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

6.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, smoking, substance abuse, pets and allergies)

6.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, school issues, protective parents, family smoking)

6.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors

6.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, sarcoidosis, lung cancer)