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Step 1 | 4 Skin and Related Connective Tissue

4.1       Normal processes

4.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

4.1.2    organ structure and function

4.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function, including barrier functions, thermal regulation, eccrine function

4.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life or ethnicity (eg, senile purpura, male pattern baldness, postmenopausal hair changes)

4.1.5    skin defense mechanisms and normal flora

4.2       Abnormal processes

4.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders     bacterial infections (eg, acne, cellulitis, carbuncle, abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, gangrene)     viral infections (eg, herpes infections, chickenpox, rubella, measles, roseola, verrucae)     fungal infections, including mycoses, dermatophytosis (eg, tinea)     parasitic infections (eg, scabies, lice)     immune and autoimmune disorders (eg, discoid lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, alopecia, psoriasis, urticaria, allergic dermatosis)

4.2.2    traumatic and mechanical disorders     thermal injury     decubitus ulcers     effects of ultraviolet light and radiation

4.2.3    neoplastic disorders     keratinocytes (eg, seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, ichthyosis)     melanocytes (eg, nevi, melanoma)     vascular neoplasms (eg, hemangiomas, Kaposi sarcoma)     other (eg, T-cell lymphoma, skin appendage tumors)

4.2.4    metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders, (eg, vitamin deficiencies, hypervitaminosis, hyperhidrosis)

4.2.5    vascular disorders (eg, vasculitis, Raynaud disease)

4.2.6    systemic disorders affecting the skin (eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome)

4.3       Principles of therapeutics

4.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the skin and connective tissue     anti-inflammatory agents (eg, corticosteroids, antihistamines)     emollients     sunscreen     retinoids     antimicrobial agents     cytotoxic and immunologic therapy (eg, methotrexate, PUVA, keratinolytics)

4.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, laser, tattoo removal, cryotherapy)

4.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

4.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, sun exposure, acne)

4.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, psoriasis)

4.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors

4.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, keloid)