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Urinary System

The Urinary System is a 5-week block that provides fundamental knowledge of the development, structure, and function of the kidneys and urinary system, and applies this information to the recognition, assessment, and treatment of common disease processes affecting the urinary system.  Areas highlighted include anatomy, histology, and embryology of the urinary system, the mechanisms by which the kidneys maintain electrolyte, volume, and acid-base homeostasis, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial kidney disease, dialysis, kidney transplant, nephrolithiasis, renal and urologic neoplasms, and mechanisms and disorders related to micturition.  Pertinent areas of pharmacology will be discussed as well, as relating to diuretics, nephrotoxic agents, and the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders.

A variety of learning styles are incorporated within the block, with a strong emphasis on interactive, case-based problem-solving.  Renal pathophysiology can be quite complex and detail-oriented; this course aims to reinforce the key principles that will allow for a cohesive approach to the diagnosis and management of urinary system disease without an overwhelming need for rote memorization.  Teaching session formats will include didactic lectures, interactive lectures, flipped classrooms, large and small group case-based discussions, laboratories, independent learning modules, live patient interview, and simulation.

The urinary system block will emphasize the interplay of biological, social, and system-based factors in health and disease. It includes ethical and socioeconomic considerations, and recognizes the importance of equity, diversity, and inclusion.  There is also salient content related to nutrition, pediatric nephrology/urology, and palliative care within the curriculum.

After completion of the urinary system block, the learner will be able to:

  1. Illustrate the fundamental principles that underlie normal prenatal development and establish a body plan required for further development of the urinary system.
  2. Demonstrate and apply knowledge pertaining to normal structure (macro and micro) and radiological appearance of the urinary system.
  3. Correlate the unique structural (macro and micro) organization of the urinary system with its development and function.
  4. Dissect human cadavers in the laboratory to analyze spatial organization of organ systems and acquire the necessary ethical, social, collaborative, professional, and surgical skills for future practice of medicine.
  5. Critique the use of diagnostic tests (including laboratory tests and imaging modalities) in diagnosis of diseases in the urinary system, and evaluate their roles in identifying common alterations in the urinary system.
  6. Analyze the physiological processes that underlie normal functioning of the urinary system, and demonstrate how major classes of urinary system disease result in altered structure (pathology) and/or function (pathophysiology).
  7. Describe the signs, symptoms, and diagnostic findings seen in common diseases affecting the urinary system.
  8. Describe major disorders of the urinary system which may affect children and the elderly, with an emphasis on congenital, genetic, and acquired disorders, along with processes of normal aging.
  9. Describe general and specific medical pharmacology as pertaining to the urinary system, and apply this to the general treatment of common diseases impacting the urinary system.
  10. Illustrate how social determinants of health, principles of population health, and disparities in health equity affect disease processes and health care outcomes within the urinary system.
  11. Work collaboratively through problem sets and simulated cases with peers to identify, diagnose, and manage common diseases affecting the urinary system.

Updated JUNE 24 2022 | cjb