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Genome Editing

Genome editing refers to a genetic engineering approach to alter targeted DNA sequence, including insertion, deletion, inversion or replacing with a pre-designed sequence. This is achieved by utilizing engineered nucleases such as ZFN, TALEN and Cas9. These nucleases can be programmed to precisely target a specific DNA sequence, where they make double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). These DSBs can be repaired by various cellular DNA repair pathways such as nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR). During the repair process, desired alterations to the beginning DNA sequence can be realized.