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Publications

Total: displaying 10 out of 71 results
  • scRNA-seq of human vitiligo reveals complex networks of subclinical immune activation and a role for CCR5 in Treg function

    Monday, September 13, 2021
    Source: Science translational medicine
    [Figure: see text].
  • AIM2 regulates anti-tumor immunity and is a viable therapeutic target for melanoma

    Thursday, July 29, 2021
    Source: The Journal of experimental medicine
    The STING and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) pathways are activated by the presence of cytosolic DNA, and STING agonists enhance immunotherapeutic responses. Here, we show that dendritic cell (DC) expression of AIM2 within human melanoma correlates with poor prognosis and, in contrast to STING, AIM2 exerts an immunosuppressive effect within the melanoma microenvironment. Vaccination with AIM2-deficient DCs improves the efficacy of both adoptive T cell therapy and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for "cold...
  • Editorial: Immunology of Vitiligo

    Monday, July 12, 2021
    Source: Frontiers in immunology
    No abstract
  • Gene Expression Profiling in the Skin Reveals Strong Similarities between Subacute and Chronic Cutaneous Lupus that Are Distinct from Lupus Nephritis

    Monday, June 21, 2021
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus are represented in the majority of cutaneous lupus subtypes, each of which has variable implications for systemic manifestations such as lupus nephritis. On dermatologic examination, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus are distinct. However, it is often difficult to diagnose the subtype from histology alone. Our study utilized whole-genome microarray expression analysis...
  • Efficacy of ruxolitinib cream in vitiligo by patient characteristics and affected body areas: Descriptive subgroup analyses from a phase 2, randomized, double-blind trial

    Saturday, June 05, 2021
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • Treatment recommendations for patients with vitiligo during COVID-19

    Monday, May 24, 2021
    Source: The Australasian journal of dermatology
    No abstract
  • Resident Memory T Cells in Autoimmune Skin Diseases

    Thursday, May 20, 2021
    Source: Frontiers in immunology
    Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) are a critical component of the immune system, providing the body with an immediate and highly specific response against pathogens re-infecting peripheral tissues. More recently, however, it has been demonstrated that TRM cells also form during autoimmunity. TRM mediated autoimmune diseases are particularly destructive, because unlike foreign antigens, the self-antigens are never cleared, continuously activating self-reactive TRM T cells. In this article, we...
  • Gaining Insight into Vitiligo Genetics through the Lens of a Large Epidemiologic Study

    Tuesday, March 23, 2021
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Several epidemiologic studies and GWASs have implicated genetic factors in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. The report by Kim et al. (2020) describes a prospective cohort study from Korea that has the greatest statistical power to date in addressing the epidemiology of vitiligo inheritance. The authors reported the incidence risk ratios in individuals whose first-degree relatives or spouses are affected, providing clear evidence that both genetic and nongenetic factors influence the pathogenesis of...
  • Translational Research in Vitiligo

    Friday, March 19, 2021
    Source: Frontiers in immunology
    Vitiligo is a disease of the skin characterized by the appearance of white spots. Significant progress has been made in understanding vitiligo pathogenesis over the past 30 years, but only through perseverance, collaboration, and open-minded discussion. Early hypotheses considered roles for innervation, microvascular anomalies, oxidative stress, defects in melanocyte adhesion, autoimmunity, somatic mosaicism, and genetics. Because theories about pathogenesis drive experimental design, focus, and...
  • Ruxolitinib cream for the treatment of vitiligo - Authors' reply

    Sunday, November 29, 2020
    Source: Lancet (London, England)
    No abstract
  • International observational atopic dermatitis cohort to follow natural history and treatment course: TARGET-DERM AD study design and rationale

    Saturday, November 28, 2020
    Source: BMJ open
    INTRODUCTION: As new topical and systemic treatments become available for atopic dermatitis (AD), there is a need to understand how treatments are being used in routine clinical practice, their comparative effectiveness and their long-term safety in diverse clinical settings.
  • Type I interferon signaling limits viral vector priming of CD8+ T cells during initiation of vitiligo and melanoma immunotherapy

    Sunday, October 11, 2020
    Source: Pigment cell & melanoma research
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease in which epidermal melanocytes are targeted for destruction by CD8^(+) T cells specific for melanocyte/melanoma-shared antigens. IFNγ is the central cytokine driving disease, but the role of type I IFN in vitiligo remains unclear. We investigated the functional role of type I IFN during vitiligo progression using two different mouse models: one induced with a vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine and one induced with dendritic cells to prime autoimmune T cells....
  • Ruxolitinib cream for treatment of vitiligo: a randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial

    Monday, July 13, 2020
    Source: Lancet (London, England)
    BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in skin depigmentation and reduced quality of life. There is no approved treatment for vitiligo repigmentation and current off-label therapies have limited efficacy, emphasising the need for improved treatment options. We investigated the therapeutic potential of ruxolitinib cream in patients with vitiligo and report the efficacy and safety results up to 52 weeks of double-blind treatment.
  • Jak Inhibitors Reverse Vitiligo in Mice but Do Not Deplete Skin Resident Memory T Cells

    Friday, May 29, 2020
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    No abstract
  • Vitiligo: Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Wednesday, February 05, 2020
    Source: Annual review of immunology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that targets pigment-producing melanocytes and results in patches of depigmentation that are visible as white spots. Recent research studies have yielded a strong mechanistic understanding of this disease. Autoreactive cytotoxic CD8^(+) T cells engage melanocytes and promote disease progression through the local production of IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced chemokines are then secreted from surrounding keratinocytes to further recruit T cells to the skin...
  • Proceeding Report of the Second Vitiligo International Symposium-November 9-10, 2018, Detroit, Michigan, USA

    Tuesday, January 28, 2020
    Source: Pigment cell & melanoma research
    No abstract
  • Jak Inhibition Prevents Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis in Mice and Is Effective in Patients with Morphea

    Monday, January 20, 2020
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    No abstract
  • Standardizing serial photography for assessing and monitoring vitiligo: A core set of international recommendations for essential clinical and technical specifications

    Monday, November 04, 2019
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    CONCLUSIONS: This consensus-based protocol for vitiligo photography will harmonize imaging for both clinical practice, translational research, and clinical trials. It can improve outcome assessment, foster multicenter collaboration, and promote better communication with patients regarding outcomes of treatment.
  • The Role of Memory CD8+ T Cells in Vitiligo

    Wednesday, June 19, 2019
    Source: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease mediated by autoreactive CD8^(+) T cells that destroy the pigment-producing cells of the epidermis, melanocytes, leading to areas of depigmentation. Patients with vitiligo require lifelong treatment to regain and maintain their pigment. Clinical observations uncovered the importance of autoimmune memory in vitiligo because cessation of treatment frequently led to relapse of disease at the site of previous lesions. A subset of memory T cells known as CD8^(+)...
  • T-cell positioning by chemokines in autoimmune skin diseases

    Saturday, April 13, 2019
    Source: Immunological reviews
    Autoimmune skin diseases are complex processes in which autoreactive cells must navigate through the skin tissue to find their targets. Regulatory T cells in the skin help to mitigate autoimmune inflammation and may in fact be responsible for the patchy nature of these conditions. In this review, we will discuss chemokines that are important for global recruitment of T cell populations to the skin during disease, as well as signals that fine-tune their localization and function. We will describe...
  • Validation of a physician global assessment tool for vitiligo extent: Results of an international vitiligo expert meeting

    Friday, April 05, 2019
    Source: Pigment cell & melanoma research
    Currently, vitiligo lacks a validated Physician Global Assessment (PGA) for disease extent. This PGA can be used to stratify and interpret the numeric scores obtained by the Vitiligo Extent Score (VES). We investigated the interrater reliability of a 5-point PGA scale during an international vitiligo workshop. Vitiligo experts from five different continents rated photographs of non-segmental vitiligo patients with varying degrees of extent with the PGA score. Good interrater agreements...
  • Patient satisfaction and physician productivity in shared medical appointments for vitiligo

    Wednesday, March 27, 2019
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    CONCLUSION: SMAs were successful in a vitiligo clinic for both patient and provider. The SMA is a solution to improve access to dermatologists without compromising patient benefit, experience, or satisfaction.
  • Treatment with Modified Heat Shock Protein Repigments Vitiligo Lesions in Sinclair Swine

    Saturday, November 24, 2018
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    HSP70i is secreted by stressed melanocytes, is associated with human vitiligo lesions, and functionally contributes to a mouse model of vitiligo. Henning et al. report that treatment with a modified version of the protein reversed depigmentation in Sinclair swine, a useful animal model of vitiligo. These studies provide the rationale for testing in human studies.
  • Resident Memory and Recirculating Memory T Cells Cooperate to Maintain Disease in a Mouse Model of Vitiligo

    Wednesday, November 14, 2018
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) form in the skin in vitiligo and persist to maintain disease, as white spots often recur rapidly after discontinuing therapy. We and others have recently described melanocyte-specific autoreactive Trm in vitiligo lesions. Here, we characterize the functional relationship between Trm and recirculating memory T cells (Tcm) in our vitiligo mouse model. We found that both Trm and Tcm sensed autoantigen in the skin long after stabilization of disease, producing...
  • Mouse Model for Human Vitiligo

    Wednesday, September 26, 2018
    Source: Current protocols in immunology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease in which the pigment-producing melanocytes are destroyed by autoreactive CD8^(+) T cells. As a result, patients develop disfiguring white spots on the skin. This article discusses the first mouse model of vitiligo that develops epidermal depigmentation, similar to disease in human patients. To achieve epidermal depigmentation, mice are genetically engineered to retain melanocytes in the skin epidermis. Induction of disease occurs by adoptive transfer of...
  • Antibody blockade of IL-15 signaling has the potential to durably reverse vitiligo

    Friday, July 20, 2018
    Source: Science translational medicine
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin mediated by CD8^(+) T cells that kill melanocytes and create white spots. Skin lesions in vitiligo frequently return after discontinuing conventional treatments, supporting the hypothesis that autoimmune memory is formed at these locations. We found that lesional T cells in mice and humans with vitiligo display a resident memory (T(RM)) phenotype, similar to those that provide rapid, localized protection against reinfection from skin and...
  • Fas ligand promotes an inducible TLR-dependent model of cutaneous lupus-like inflammation

    Tuesday, June 12, 2018
    Source: The Journal of clinical investigation
    Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. However, Tlr9-/- autoimmune-prone strains paradoxically develop more severe disease. We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+...
  • Alopecia areata is a medical disease

    Sunday, March 18, 2018
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • Building and Crossing the Translational Bridge: 2016 Alopecia Areata Research Summit Highlights

    Sunday, December 24, 2017
    Source: The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings
    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune skin disease that results in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere on the body and affects over 146 million people worldwide at some point in their lives. Founded in 1981, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation is a nonprofit organization that supports research to find a cure or acceptable treatment for AA, supports those with the disease, and educates the public about AA. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation conducts research summits every 2...
  • Vitiligo-like depigmentation in patients receiving programmed cell death-1 inhibitor reflects active vitiligo

    Saturday, December 16, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • The XXXVIII Long Fox Memorial Lecture: The Use of Tracer Elements in Biology and Medicine

    Wednesday, September 13, 2017
    Source: Bristol medico-chirurgical journal (1883)
    No abstract
  • Repigmentation in vitiligo using the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib may require concomitant light exposure

    Tuesday, August 22, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    CONCLUSION: Treatment of vitiligo with JAK inhibitors appears to require light exposure. In contrast to treatment with phototherapy alone, repigmentation during treatment with JAK inhibitors may require only low-level light. Maintenance of repigmentation may be achieved with JAK inhibitor monotherapy. These results support a model wherein JAK inhibitors suppress T cell mediators of vitiligo and light exposure is necessary for stimulation of melanocyte regeneration.
  • Vitiligo: Mechanistic insights lead to novel treatments

    Sunday, August 06, 2017
    Source: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by patchy depigmentation. Current treatments are moderately effective at reversing disease by suppressing autoimmune inflammation in the skin and promoting melanocyte regeneration. Recent basic and translational research studies have significantly improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis, which is now leading to emerging treatment strategies based on targeted therapy. Here we discuss important clinical characteristics of...
  • Current and emerging treatments for vitiligo

    Saturday, June 17, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    Clinicians should be aware that vitiligo is not merely a cosmetic disease and that there are safe and effective treatments available for vitiligo. It is important to recognize common and uncommon presentations and those with active disease, as well as their implications for clinical management; these were discussed in the first article in this continuing medical education series. Existing treatments include topical and systemic immunosuppressants, phototherapy, and surgical techniques, which...
  • New discoveries in the pathogenesis and classification of vitiligo

    Saturday, June 17, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    Vitiligo is a common autoimmune disease that progressively destroys melanocytes in the skin, resulting in the appearance of patchy depigmentation. This disfiguring condition frequently affects the face and other visible areas of the body, which can be psychologically devastating. The onset of vitiligo often occurs in younger individuals and progresses for life, resulting in a heavy burden of disease and decreased quality of life. Presentation patterns of vitiligo vary, and recognition of these...
  • Optimizing Vitiligo Management: Past, Present, and Future

    Tuesday, March 21, 2017
    Source: Dermatologic clinics
    No abstract
  • Vitiligo Pathogenesis and Emerging Treatments

    Tuesday, March 21, 2017
    Source: Dermatologic clinics
    The pathogenesis of vitiligo involves interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic melanocyte defects, innate immune inflammation, and T-cell-mediated melanocyte destruction. The goal of treatment is to not only halt disease progression but also promote repigmentation through melanocyte regeneration, proliferation, and migration. Treatment strategies that address all aspects of disease pathogenesis and repigmentation are likely to have greatest efficacy, a strategy that may require combination...
  • Chemical-Induced Vitiligo

    Tuesday, March 21, 2017
    Source: Dermatologic clinics
    Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for more than 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from nonchemically induced...
  • Suction blistering the lesional skin of vitiligo patients reveals useful biomarkers of disease activity

    Monday, March 06, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    CONCLUSION: Measuring CXCL9 directly in the skin might be effective in clinical trials as an early marker of treatment response. Additionally, use of the modified suction-blister technique supports investigation of inflammatory skin diseases using powerful tools like flow cytometry and protein quantification.
  • The Vitiligo Working Group recommendations for narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy treatment of vitiligo

    Tuesday, February 21, 2017
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    CONCLUSION: This set of expert recommendations by the VWG is based on the prescribing practices of phototherapy experts from around the world to create a unified, broadly applicable set of recommendations on the use of NBUVB in vitiligo.
  • CXCR3 Depleting Antibodies Prevent and Reverse Vitiligo in Mice

    Saturday, January 28, 2017
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    No abstract
  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase-II clinical trial to evaluate oral simvastatin as a treatment for vitiligo

    Sunday, December 18, 2016
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • CXCR4 identifies transitional bone marrow premonocytes that replenish the mature monocyte pool for peripheral responses

    Saturday, November 05, 2016
    Source: The Journal of experimental medicine
    It is well established that Ly6C^(hi) monocytes develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) and reside in the bone marrow (BM) until they are mobilized into the circulation. In our study, we found that BM Ly6C^(hi) monocytes are not a homogenous population, as current data would suggest. Using computational analysis approaches to interpret multidimensional datasets, we demonstrate that BM Ly6C^(hi) monocytes consist of two distinct subpopulations (CXCR4^(hi) and CXCR4^(lo) subpopulations)...
  • Understanding mechanisms of autoimmunity through translational research in vitiligo

    Friday, October 21, 2016
    Source: Current opinion in immunology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that leads to life-altering depigmentation and remains difficult to treat. However, clinical observations and translational studies over 30-40 years have led to the development of an insightful working model of disease pathogenesis: Genetic risk spanning both immune and melanocyte functions is pushed over a threshold by known and suspected environmental factors to initiate autoimmune T cell-mediated killing of melanocytes. While under cellular...
  • Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokines Orchestrate T-Cell Positioning in the Epidermis during Vitiligo and May Serve as Biomarkers of Disease

    Saturday, October 01, 2016
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that results in the destruction of melanocytes and the clinical appearance of white spots. Disease pathogenesis depends on IFN-γ and IFN-γ-induced chemokines to promote T-cell recruitment to the epidermis where melanocytes reside. The skin is a complex organ, with a variety of resident cell types. We sought to better define the microenvironment and distinct cellular contributions during autoimmunity in vitiligo, and we found that the epidermis is a...
  • Sampling Serum in Patients With Vitiligo to Measure Disease Activity in the Skin

    Thursday, August 25, 2016
    Source: JAMA dermatology
    No abstract
  • Understanding autoimmunity of vitiligo and alopecia areata

    Thursday, May 19, 2016
    Source: Current opinion in pediatrics
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common, disfiguring skin diseases. Treatment options are limited and include nontargeted approaches, such as corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy, and other immune-modifying agents. The purpose of this article is to review shared, novel mechanisms between vitiligo and alopecia areata, as well as discuss how they inform the development of future targeted treatments.
  • Vitiligo

    Thursday, May 19, 2016
    Source: Nature reviews. Disease primers
    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder that affects 0.5% to 2% of the world population. Three different forms are classified according to the distribution of lesions; namely non-segmental, segmental and mixed vitiligo. Vitiligo is associated with polymorphisms in genes involved in the immune response and in melanogenesis. However, environmental factors are required for the development of manifest disease. In general, the diagnosis is clinical and no laboratory tests or biopsies are...
  • Melanocytes in psoriasis: convicted culprit or bullied bystander?

    Wednesday, March 02, 2016
    Source: Pigment cell & melanoma research
    No abstract
  • Neutrophils Self-Regulate Immune Complex-Mediated Cutaneous Inflammation through CXCL2

    Sunday, January 24, 2016
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Deposition of immune complexes (ICs) in tissues triggers acute inflammatory pathology characterized by massive neutrophil influx leading to edema and hemorrhage, and is especially associated with vasculitis of the skin, but the mechanisms that regulate this type III hypersensitivity process remain poorly understood. Here, using a combination of multiphoton intravital microscopy and genomic approaches, we re-examined the cutaneous reverse passive Arthus reaction and observed that IC-activated...
  • Interfering with the IFN-γ/CXCL10 pathway to develop new targeted treatments for vitiligo

    Thursday, January 07, 2016
    Source: Annals of translational medicine
    No abstract
  • Rapid skin repigmentation on oral ruxolitinib in a patient with coexistent vitiligo and alopecia areata (AA)

    Tuesday, December 22, 2015
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • Cellular stress and innate inflammation in organ-specific autoimmunity: lessons learned from vitiligo

    Sunday, December 20, 2015
    Source: Immunological reviews
    For decades, research in autoimmunity has focused primarily on immune contributions to disease. Yet recent studies report elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and abnormal activation of the unfolded protein response in cells targeted by autoimmunity, implicating cellular stress originating from the target tissue as a contributing factor. A better understanding of this contribution may help to answer important lingering questions in organ-specific autoimmunity, as to what factors initiate...
  • Melanocyte Regeneration in Vitiligo Requires WNT beneath their Wings

    Tuesday, November 17, 2015
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Melanocytes in patients with vitiligo possess intrinsic abnormalities that contribute to its pathogenesis. Regazzetti et al. report that CXCL10 expression reflects subtle inflammation in normal-appearing skin but not in stable depigmented lesions, supporting the hypothesis that melanocytes themselves initiate autoimmune inflammation prior to clinically evident disease. In addition, they find that oxidative stress in melanocytes impairs WNT signaling and that targeting this pathway induces...
  • Vitiligo is not a cosmetic disease

    Sunday, October 18, 2015
    Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    No abstract
  • Requirement for CD28 in Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation, CCR6 Induction, and Skin Homing

    Sunday, September 27, 2015
    Source: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
    The skin, similar to most nonlymphoid tissues, contains substantial numbers of T cells. Among these, memory T cells serve a sentinel role to protect against pathogens, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) terminate immune responses as a check against unrestrained inflammation. Previously, we created conditional knockout mice with Treg-specific deletion of CD28. Although these mice have normal numbers of Tregs, these cells have lower levels of CTLA-4, PD-1, and CCR6, and the animals develop systemic...
  • Use of permanent hair dyes and risk of vitiligo in women

    Tuesday, July 28, 2015
    Source: Pigment cell & melanoma research
    No abstract
  • IFN-γ in Vitiligo, Is It the Fuel or the Fire?

    Thursday, June 11, 2015
    Source: Acta dermato-venereologica
    No abstract
  • Simvastatin prevents and reverses depigmentation in a mouse model of vitiligo

    Friday, December 19, 2014
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Vitiligo is a common autoimmune disease of the skin that results in disfiguring white spots. There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments, and current treatments are time-consuming, expensive, and of low efficacy. We sought to identify new treatments for vitiligo, and first considered repurposed medications because of the availability of safety data and expedited regulatory approval. We previously reported that the IFN-γ-induced chemokine CXCL10 is expressed in lesional...
  • Immunology and skin in health and disease

    Wednesday, December 03, 2014
    Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine
    The skin is a complex organ that, in addition to providing a strong barrier against external insults, serves as an arena for a wide variety of inflammatory processes, including immunity against infections, tumor immunity, autoimmunity, and allergy. A variety of cells collaborate to mount functional immune responses, which are initiated by resident populations and evolve through the recruitment of additional cell populations to the skin. Inflammatory responses are quite diverse, resulting in a...
  • CXCL10 is critical for the progression and maintenance of depigmentation in a mouse model of vitiligo

    Friday, February 14, 2014
    Source: Science translational medicine
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that results in disfiguring white spots. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for vitiligo, and most off-label treatments yield unsatisfactory results. Vitiligo patients have increased numbers of autoreactive, melanocyte-specific CD8(+) T cells in the skin and blood, which are directly responsible for melanocyte destruction. We report that gene expression in lesional skin from vitiligo patients revealed an interferon-γ...
  • Innate immune mechanisms in vitiligo: danger from within

    Tuesday, November 19, 2013
    Source: Current opinion in immunology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin in which melanocytes are destroyed by antigen-specific T cells, resulting in patchy depigmentation. Although adaptive immunity plays a clear role in disease progression, initiating factors are largely unknown. Many studies report that cellular stress pathways are dysregulated in melanocytes from vitiligo patients, suggesting that melanocyte-intrinsic defects participate in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies reveal that melanocyte stress generates...
  • Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    Friday, October 18, 2013
    Source: Experimental dermatology
    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell...
  • A network of high-mobility group box transcription factors programs innate interleukin-17 production

    Tuesday, April 09, 2013
    Source: Immunity
    How innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the thymus and gut become specialized effectors is unclear. The prototypic innate-like γδ T cells (Tγδ17) are a major source of interleukin-17 (IL-17). We demonstrate that Tγδ17 cells are programmed by a gene regulatory network consisting of a quartet of high-mobility group (HMG) box transcription factors, SOX4, SOX13, TCF1, and LEF1, and not by conventional TCR signaling. SOX4 and SOX13 directly regulated the two requisite Tγδ17 cell-specific genes, Rorc and...
  • Cavitation rheology as a potential method for in vivo assessment of skin biomechanics

    Wednesday, January 30, 2013
    Source: Plastic and reconstructive surgery
    No abstract
  • A mouse model of vitiligo with focused epidermal depigmentation requires IFN-γ for autoreactive CD8⁺ T-cell accumulation in the skin

    Friday, February 03, 2012
    Source: The Journal of investigative dermatology
    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin causing disfiguring patchy depigmentation of the epidermis and, less commonly, hair. Therapeutic options for vitiligo are limited, reflecting in part limited knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Existing mouse models of vitiligo consist of hair depigmentation but lack prominent epidermal involvement, which is the hallmark of human disease. They are thus unable to provide a platform to fully investigate disease mechanisms and treatment. CD8(+) T cells...
  • EGR-2 is not required for in vivo CD4 T cell mediated immune responses

    Saturday, October 02, 2010
    Source: PloS one
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that EGR-2 is not required to mount normal acute in vivo immune responses against foreign antigens, and suggest instead that it may serve to regulate the response to chronic antigenic exposure, such as that which occurs to autoantigens.
  • Renbok phenomenon and contact sensitization in a patient with alopecia universalis

    Wednesday, April 21, 2010
    Source: Archives of dermatology
    CONCLUSIONS: This case represents a natural experiment in which 3 distinct but overlapping immune responses favored psoriasis or contact dermatitis over alopecia areata. The precise mechanism responsible for these effects remains unclear; however, based on recent reports, we speculate that cytokine cross-regulation plays a role in competition among these distinct immune responses.
  • Depletion of the programmed death-1 receptor completely reverses established clonal anergy in CD4(+) T lymphocytes via an interleukin-2-dependent mechanism

    Tuesday, February 24, 2009
    Source: Cellular immunology
    Recent studies have implicated the cell surface receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) in numerous models of T cell anergy, though the specific mechanisms by which the PD-1 signal maintains tolerance is not clear. We demonstrate that the depletion of PD-1 with siRNA results in a complete reversal of clonal anergy in the A.E7 T cell model, suggesting that the mechanism by which PD-1 maintains the anergic phenotype is a T-cell-intrinsic phenomenon, and not one dependent on other cell populations in...
  • Exophiala spinifera as a cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis: case study and review of the literature

    Tuesday, December 23, 2008
    Source: Medical mycology
    Exophiala spinifera has been reported as an agent of cutaneous disease 18 times in the literature. Clinical presentations of cutaneous lesions vary widely, including erythematous papules, verrucous plaques, and deep subcutaneous abscesses. The clinical distribution and course of disease are also variable, depending on the age and immune competency of the patient. Histologic appearance occurs in one of two patterns--phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis. While E. spinifera appears to be...
  • Early growth response gene-2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for full induction of clonal anergy in CD4+ T cells

    Thursday, December 09, 2004
    Source: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
    Ag-specific immune tolerance results from the induction of cellular mechanisms that limit T cell responses to selective Ags. One of these mechanisms is characterized by attenuated proliferation and decreased IL-2 production in fully stimulated CD4(+) Th cells and is denoted T cell anergy. We report the identification of the early growth response gene (Egr-2; Krox-20), a zinc-finger transcription factor, as a key protein required for induction of anergy in cultured T cells. Gene array screening...