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Publications

Total: displaying 10 out of 60 results
  • Nuclear hubs built on RNAs and clustered organization of the genome

    Wednesday, April 08, 2020
    RNAs play diverse roles in formation and function of subnuclear compartments, most of which are associated with active genes. NEAT1 and NEAT2/MALAT1 exemplify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) known to function in nuclear bodies; however, we suggest that RNA biogenesis itself may underpin much nuclear compartmentalization. Recent studies show that active genes cluster with nuclear speckles on a genome-wide scale, significantly advancing earlier cytological evidence that speckles (aka SC-35 domains)...
  • Silencing Trisomy 21 with XIST in Neural Stem Cells Promotes Neuronal Differentiation

    Saturday, January 25, 2020
    The ability of XIST to dosage compensate a trisomic autosome presents unique experimental opportunities and potentially transformative therapeutic prospects. However, it is currently thought that XIST requires the natural context surrounding pluripotency to initiate chromosome silencing. Here, we demonstrate that XIST RNA induced in differentiated neural cells can trigger chromosome-wide silencing of chromosome 21 in Down syndrome patient-derived cells. Use of this tightly controlled system...
  • Trisomy silencing by XIST normalizes Down syndrome cell pathogenesis demonstrated for hematopoietic ...

    Friday, December 07, 2018
    We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to...
  • Rlim-Dependent and -Independent Pathways for X Chromosome Inactivation in Female ESCs

    Thursday, December 28, 2017
    During female mouse embryogenesis, two forms of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure dosage compensation from sex chromosomes. Beginning at the four-cell stage, imprinted XCI (iXCI) exclusively silences the paternal X (Xp), and this pattern is maintained in extraembryonic cell types. Epiblast cells, which give rise to the embryo proper, reactivate the Xp (XCR) and undergo a random form of XCI (rXCI) around implantation. Both iXCI and rXCI depend on the long non-coding RNA Xist. The ubiquitin...
  • XIST RNA: a window into the broader role of RNA in nuclear chromosome architecture

    Wednesday, September 27, 2017
    XIST RNA triggers the transformation of an active X chromosome into a condensed, inactive Barr body and therefore provides a unique window into transitions of higher-order chromosome architecture. Despite recent progress, how XIST RNA localizes and interacts with the X chromosome remains poorly understood. Genetic engineering of XIST into a trisomic autosome demonstrates remarkable capacity of XIST RNA to localize and comprehensively silence that autosome. Thus, XIST does not require X...
  • Demethylated HSATII DNA and HSATII RNA Foci Sequester PRC1 and MeCP2 into Cancer-Specific Nuclear Bo...

    Thursday, March 23, 2017
    This study reveals that high-copy satellite II (HSATII) sequences in the human genome can bind and impact distribution of chromatin regulatory proteins and that this goes awry in cancer. In many cancers, master regulatory proteins form two types of cancer-specific nuclear bodies, caused by locus-specific deregulation of HSATII. DNA demethylation at the 1q12 mega-satellite, common in cancer, causes PRC1 aggregation into prominent Cancer-Associated Polycomb (CAP) bodies. These loci remain silent,...
  • SAF-A Requirement in Anchoring XIST RNA to Chromatin Varies in Transformed and Primary Cells

    Wednesday, October 12, 2016
    No abstract
  • Regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse development by Rlim

    Tuesday, September 20, 2016
    Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined...
  • RNA as a fundamental component of interphase chromosomes: could repeats prove key?

    Wednesday, May 25, 2016
    Beginning with the precedent of XIST RNA as a 'chromosomal RNA' (cRNA), there is growing interest in the possibility that a diversity of non-coding RNAs may function in chromatin. We review findings which lead us to suggest that RNA is essentially a widespread component of interphase chromosomes. Further, RNA likely contributes to architecture and regulation, with repeat-rich 'junk' RNA in euchromatin (ecRNA) promoting a more open chromatin state. Thousands of low-abundance nuclear RNAs have...
  • Unfolding the story of chromatin organization in senescent cells

    Thursday, June 25, 2015
    Cell senescence, the permanent withdrawal of a cell from the cell cycle, is characterized by dramatic, cytological scale changes to DNA condensation throughout the genome. While prior emphasis has been placed on increases in heterochromatin, such as the formation of compact Senescent Associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF) structures, our recent findings showed that SAHF formation is preceded by the unravelling of constitutive heterochromatin into visibly extended structures, which we have termed...
  • Spatial re-organization of myogenic regulatory sequences temporally controls gene expression

    Friday, February 06, 2015
    During skeletal muscle differentiation, the activation of some tissue-specific genes occurs immediately while others are delayed. The molecular basis controlling temporal gene regulation is poorly understood. We show that the regulatory sequences, but not other regions of genes expressed at late times of myogenesis, are in close physical proximity in differentiating embryonic tissue and in differentiating culture cells, despite these genes being located on different chromosomes. Formation of...
  • RLIM is dispensable for X-chromosome inactivation in the mouse embryonic epiblast

    Friday, May 30, 2014
    In female mice, two forms of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure the selective silencing of female sex chromosomes during mouse embryogenesis. Beginning at the four-cell stage, imprinted XCI (iXCI) exclusively silences the paternal X chromosome. Later, around implantation, epiblast cells of the inner cell mass that give rise to the embryo reactivate the paternal X chromosome and undergo a random form of XCI (rXCI). Xist, a long non-coding RNA crucial for both forms of XCI, is activated by the...
  • Stable C0T-1 repeat RNA is abundant and is associated with euchromatic interphase chromosomes

    Tuesday, March 04, 2014
    Recent studies recognize a vast diversity of noncoding RNAs with largely unknown functions, but few have examined interspersed repeat sequences, which constitute almost half our genome. RNA hybridization in situ using C0T-1 (highly repeated) DNA probes detects surprisingly abundant euchromatin-associated RNA comprised predominantly of repeat sequences (C0T-1 RNA), including LINE-1. C0T-1-hybridizing RNA strictly localizes to the interphase chromosome territory in cis and remains stably...
  • A long noncoding RNA mediates both activation and repression of immune response genes

    Saturday, August 03, 2013
    An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. This response is controlled by a collaboration involving signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin-modifying factors. We have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a key regulator of this inflammatory response. Pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors induce the expression of numerous lncRNAs. One of these,...
  • Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21

    Friday, July 19, 2013
    Down's syndrome is a common disorder with enormous medical and social costs, caused by trisomy for chromosome 21. We tested the concept that gene imbalance across an extra chromosome can be de facto corrected by manipulating a single gene, XIST (the X-inactivation gene). Using genome editing with zinc finger nucleases, we inserted a large, inducible XIST transgene into the DYRK1A locus on chromosome 21, in Down's syndrome pluripotent stem cells. The XIST non-coding RNA coats chromosome 21 and...
  • A multifaceted FISH approach to study endogenous RNAs and DNAs in native nuclear and cell structures

    Tuesday, January 15, 2013
    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not a singular technique, but a battery of powerful and versatile tools for examining the distribution of endogenous genes and RNAs in precise context with each other and in relation to specific proteins or cell structures. This unit offers the details of highly sensitive and successful protocols that were initially developed largely in our lab and honed over a number of years. Our emphasis is on analysis of nuclear RNAs and DNA to address specific...
  • Heterochromatin instability in cancer: from the Barr body to satellites and the nuclear periphery

    Saturday, June 23, 2012
    In recent years it has been recognized that the development of cancer involves a series of not only genetic but epigenetic changes across the genome. At the same time, connections between epigenetic regulation, chromatin packaging, and overall nuclear architecture are increasingly appreciated. The cell-type specific organization of heterochromatin, established upon cell differentiation, is responsible for maintaining much of the genome in a repressed state, within a highly compartmentalized...
  • Paternal RLIM/Rnf12 is a survival factor for milk-producing alveolar cells

    Tuesday, May 01, 2012
    In female mouse embryos, somatic cells undergo a random form of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas extraembryonic trophoblast cells in the placenta undergo imprinted XCI, silencing exclusively the paternal X chromosome. Initiation of imprinted XCI requires a functional maternal allele of the X-linked gene Rnf12, which encodes the ubiquitin ligase Rnf12/RLIM. We find that knockout (KO) of Rnf12 in female mammary glands inhibits alveolar differentiation and milk production upon pregnancy,...
  • XIST RNA and architecture of the inactive X chromosome: implications for the repeat genome

    Thursday, March 31, 2011
    XIST RNA paints and induces silencing of one X chromosome in mammalian female cells, providing a powerful model to investigate long-range chromosomal regulation. This chapter focuses on events downstream from the spread of XIST RNA across the interphase chromosome, to consider how this large noncoding RNA interacts with and silences a whole chromosome. Several lines of evidence are summarized that point to the involvement of repeat sequences in different aspects of the X-inactivation process....
  • Maternal Rnf12/RLIM is required for imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice

    Friday, October 22, 2010
    Two forms of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure the selective silencing of female sex chromosomes during mouse embryogenesis. Imprinted XCI begins with the detection of Xist RNA expression on the paternal X chromosome (Xp) at about the four-cell stage of embryonic development. In the embryonic tissues of the inner cell mass, a random form of XCI occurs in blastocysts that inactivates either Xp or the maternal X chromosome (Xm). Both forms of XCI require the non-coding Xist RNA that coats the...
  • AURKB-mediated effects on chromatin regulate binding versus release of XIST RNA to the inactive chro...

    Wednesday, August 26, 2009
    How XIST RNA strictly localizes across the inactive X chromosome is unknown; however, prophase release of human XIST RNA provides a clue. Tests of inhibitors that mimic mitotic chromatin modifications implicated an indirect role of PP1 (protein phosphatase 1), potentially via its interphase repression of Aurora B kinase (AURKB), which phosphorylates H3 and chromosomal proteins at prophase. RNA interference to AURKB causes mitotic retention of XIST RNA, unlike other mitotic or broad kinase...
  • Changing nuclear landscape and unique PML structures during early epigenetic transitions of human em...

    Tuesday, May 19, 2009
    The complex nuclear structure of somatic cells is important to epigenomic regulation, yet little is known about nuclear organization of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here we surveyed several nuclear structures in pluripotent and transitioning hESC. Observations of centromeres, telomeres, SC35 speckles, Cajal Bodies, lamin A/C and emerin, nuclear shape and size demonstrate a very different "nuclear landscape" in hESC. This landscape is remodeled during a brief transitional window,...
  • Loss of miRNA biogenesis induces p19Arf-p53 signaling and senescence in primary cells

    Wednesday, July 02, 2008
    Dicer, an enzyme involved in microRNA (miRNA) maturation, is required for proper cell differentiation and embryogenesis in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that Dicer and miRNA may also regulate tumorigenesis. To better characterize the role of miRNA in primary cell growth, we generated Dicer-conditional mice. Ablation of Dicer and loss of mature miRNAs in embryonic fibroblasts up-regulated p19(Arf) and p53 levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced a premature senescence phenotype that...
  • Defining early steps in mRNA transport: mutant mRNA in myotonic dystrophy type I is blocked at entry...

    Wednesday, September 12, 2007
    In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), triplet repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) causes the nuclear retention of mutant messenger RNA (mRNA). Although the DMPK gene locus positions precisely at the outer edge of a factor-rich SC-35 domain, the normal mRNA consistently accumulates within the domain, and this RNA is depleted upon transcriptional inhibition. In DM1, mutant transcripts detach from the gene but accumulate in granules that abut...
  • The disappearing Barr body in breast and ovarian cancers

    Friday, July 06, 2007
    Interest has recently reawakened in whether loss of the heterochromatic X chromosome (Barr body) is prevalent in certain breast and ovarian cancers, and new insights into the mechanisms involved have emerged. Mitotic segregation errors commonly explain the loss of the inactive X chromosome (Xi), but compromise of Xi heterochromatin in some cancers may signal broader deficits of nuclear heterochromatin. The debated link between BRCA1 and Xi might reflect a general relationship between BRCA1 and...
  • BRCA1 does not paint the inactive X to localize XIST RNA but may contribute to broad changes in canc...

    Wednesday, December 06, 2006
    The BRCA1 tumor suppressor involved in breast and ovarian cancer is linked to several fundamental cell regulatory processes. Recently, it was reported that BRCA1 supports localization of XIST RNA to the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in women. The apparent cytological overlap between BRCA1 and XIST RNA across the Xi raised the possibility a direct role of BRCA1 in localizing XIST. We report here that BRCA1 does not paint the Xi or XIST territory, as do markers of Xi facultative heterochromatin. A...
  • BRCA1 foci in normal S-phase nuclei are linked to interphase centromeres and replication of pericent...

    Wednesday, December 06, 2006
    Breast cancer-associated protein 1 (BRCA1) forms foci at sites of induced DNA damage, but any significance of these normal S-phase foci is unknown. BRCA1 distribution does not simply mirror or overlap that of replicating DNA; however, BRCA1 foci frequently abut sites of BrdU incorporation, mostly at mid-to-late S phase. Although BRCA1 does not overlap XIST RNA across the inactive X chromosome, BRCA1 foci position overwhelmingly in heterochromatic regions, particularly the nucleolar periphery...
  • Molecular anatomy of a speckle

    Friday, June 09, 2006
    Direct localization of specific genes, RNAs, and proteins has allowed the dissection of individual nuclear speckles in relation to the molecular biology of gene expression. Nuclear speckles (aka SC35 domains) are essentially ubiquitous structures enriched for most pre-mRNA metabolic factors, yet their relationship to gene expression has been poorly understood. Analyses of specific genes and their spliced or mature mRNA strongly support that SC35 domains are hubs of activity, not stores of inert...
  • Word frequency analysis reveals enrichment of dinucleotide repeats on the human X chromosome and [GA...

    Wednesday, March 15, 2006
    Most of the human genome encodes neither protein nor known functional RNA, yet available approaches to seek meaningful information in the "noncoding" sequence are limited. The unique biology of the X chromosome, one of which is silenced in mammalian females, can yield clues into sequence motifs involved in chromosome packaging and function. Although autosomal chromatin has some capacity for inactivation, evidence indicates that sequences enriched on the X chromosome render it fully competent for...
  • Ubiquitinated proteins including uH2A on the human and mouse inactive X chromosome: enrichment in ge...

    Friday, December 24, 2004
    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) forms a heterochromatic structure in the nucleus that is known to have several modifications to specific histones involving acetylation or methylation. Using three different antibodies in four different cell lines, we demonstrate that the Xi in human and mouse cells is highly enriched in ubiquitinated protein(s), much of which is polyubiquitinated. This ubiquitination appears specific for the Xi as it was not observed for centromeres or other regions of...
  • The 4q subtelomere harboring the FSHD locus is specifically anchored with peripheral heterochromatin...

    Wednesday, October 27, 2004
    This paper investigates the nuclear localization of human telomeres and, specifically, the 4q35 subtelomere mutated in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD is a common muscular dystrophy that has been linked to contraction of D4Z4 tandem repeats, widely postulated to affect distant gene expression. Most human telomeres, such as 17q and 17p, avoid the nuclear periphery to reside within the internal, euchromatic compartment. In contrast, 4q35 localizes at the peripheral heterochromatin with...
  • c-Myc localization within the nucleus: evidence for association with the PML nuclear body

    Wednesday, October 27, 2004
    Definitive localization of c-Myc within the nucleus is important to fully understand the regulation and function of this oncoprotein. Studies of c-Myc distribution, however, have produced conflicting results. To overcome technical challenges inherent in c-Myc cytology, we use here three methods to visualize c-Myc and in addition examine the impact of proteasome inhibition. EYFP or HA-tagged Myc was reintroduced by stable transfection into myc null diploid rat fibroblasts, replacing endogenous...
  • The cell biology of a novel chromosomal RNA: chromosome painting by XIST/Xist RNA initiates a remode...

    Tuesday, March 16, 2004
    X chromosome inactivation begins when a novel chromosomal RNA (cRNA) from the imprinted mouse Xist or human XIST locus coats or "paints" one X chromosome in cis and initiates a cascade of chromosome remodeling events. Molecular cytological studies have proven invaluable for understanding the distinctive cellular behavior of this singular RNA involved in chromosome structure and regulation. While the detailed mechanism of XIST/Xist (X-inactivation Specific Transcript) RNA function remains largely...
  • Repositioning of muscle-specific genes relative to the periphery of SC-35 domains during skeletal my...

    Tuesday, November 18, 2003
    Previous studies have shown that in a given cell type, certain active genes associate with SC-35 domains, nuclear regions rich in RNA metabolic factors and excluded from heterochromatin. This organization is not seen for all active genes; therefore, it is important to determine whether and when this locus-specific organization arises during development and differentiation of specific cell types. Here, we investigate whether gene organization relative to SC-35 domains is cell type specific by...
  • Archvillin, a muscle-specific isoform of supervillin, is an early expressed component of the costame...

    Friday, April 25, 2003
    The membrane skeleton protein supervillin binds tightly to both F-actin and membranes and can potentiate androgen receptor activity in non-muscle cells. We report that muscle, which constitutes the principal tissue source for supervillin sequences, contains a approximately 250 kDa isoform of supervillin that localizes within nuclei and with dystrophin at costameres, regions of F-actin membrane attachment in skeletal muscle. The gene encoding this protein, 'archvillin' (Latin, archi; Greek,...
  • Evidence that all SC-35 domains contain mRNAs and that transcripts can be structurally constrained w...

    Friday, December 20, 2002
    A fundamental question of mRNA metabolism concerns the spatial organization of the steps involved in generating mature transcripts and their relationship to SC-35 domains, nuclear compartments enriched in mRNA metabolic factors and poly A+ RNA. Because poly A+ RNA in SC-35 domains remains after transcription inhibition, a prevailing view has been that most or all SC-35 domains do not contain protein-encoding mRNAs but stable RNAs with nuclear functions and thus that these compartments do not...
  • Unbalanced X;autosome translocations provide evidence for sequence specificity in the association of...

    Friday, November 22, 2002
    Whether XIST RNA is indifferent to the sequence content of the chromosome is fundamental to understanding its mechanism of chromosomal inactivation. Transgenic Xist RNA appears to associate with and inactivate an entire autosome. However, the behavior of XIST RNA on naturally occurring human X;autosome translocations has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, the relationship of human XIST RNA to autosomal chromatin is investigated in cells from two patients carrying X;autosome translocations...
  • An ectopic human XIST gene can induce chromosome inactivation in postdifferentiation human HT-1080 c...

    Thursday, June 20, 2002
    It has been believed that XIST RNA requires a discrete window in early development to initiate the series of chromatin-remodeling events that form the heterochromatic inactive X chromosome. Here we investigate four adult male HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines expressing ectopic human XIST and demonstrate that these postdifferentiation cells can undergo chromosomal inactivation outside of any normal developmental context. All four clonal lines inactivated the transgene-containing autosome to...
  • Replication-dependent histone gene expression is related to Cajal body (CB) association but does not...

    Saturday, March 17, 2001
    Interactions between Cajal bodies (CBs) and replication-dependent histone loci occur more frequently than for other mRNA-encoding genes, but such interactions are not seen with all alleles at a given time. Because CBs contain factors required for transcriptional regulation and 3' end processing of nonpolyadenylated replication-dependent histone transcripts, we investigated whether interaction with CBs is related to metabolism of these transcripts, known to vary during the cell cycle. Our...
  • Interactions of U2 gene loci and their nuclear transcripts with Cajal (coiled) bodies: evidence for ...

    Tuesday, September 12, 2000
    The Cajal (coiled) body (CB) is a structure enriched in proteins involved in mRNA, rRNA, and snRNA metabolism. CBs have been shown to interact with specific histone and snRNA gene loci. To examine the potential role of CBs in U2 snRNA metabolism, we used a variety of genomic and oligonucleotide probes to visualize in situ newly synthesized U2 snRNA relative to U2 loci and CBs. Results demonstrate that long spacer sequences between U2 coding repeats are transcribed, supporting other recent...
  • Tracking COL1A1 RNA in osteogenesis imperfecta. splice-defective transcripts initiate transport from...

    Thursday, August 10, 2000
    This study illuminates the intra-nuclear fate of COL1A1 RNA in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) Type I. Patient fibroblasts were shown to carry a heterozygous defect in splicing of intron 26, blocking mRNA export. Both the normal and mutant allele associated with a nuclear RNA track, a localized accumulation of posttranscriptional RNA emanating to one side of the gene. Both tracks had slightly elongated or globular morphology, but mutant tracks were cytologically distinct in that they lacked the...
  • Seeking common ground in nuclear complexity

    Thursday, July 13, 2000
    No abstract
  • Processing of endogenous pre-mRNAs in association with SC-35 domains is gene specific

    Friday, February 26, 1999
    Analysis of six endogenous pre-mRNAs demonstrates that localization at the periphery or within splicing factor-rich (SC-35) domains is not restricted to a few unusually abundant pre-mRNAs, but is apparently a more common paradigm of many protein-coding genes. Different genes are preferentially transcribed and their RNAs processed in different compartments relative to SC-35 domains. These differences do not simply correlate with the complexity, nuclear abundance, or position within overall...
  • Identification of a nuclear matrix targeting signal in the leukemia and bone-related AML/CBF-alpha t...

    Tuesday, June 24, 1997
    Transcription factors of the AML (core binding factor-alpha/polyoma enhancer binding protein 2) class are key transactivators of tissue-specific genes of the hematopoietic and bone lineages. Alternative splicing of the AML-1 gene results in two major AML variants, AML-1 and AML-1B. We show here that the transcriptionally active AML-1B binds to the nuclear matrix, and the inactive AML-1 does not. The association of AML-1B with the nuclear matrix is independent of DNA binding and requires a...
  • Multifunctional compartments in the nucleus: insights from DNA and RNA localization

    Thursday, August 01, 1996
    No abstract
  • U2 and U1 snRNA gene loci associate with coiled bodies

    Friday, December 01, 1995
    The coiled bodies are nuclear structures rich in a variety of nuclear and nucleolar components including snRNAs. We have investigated the possibility that coiled bodies may associate with snRNA genes and report here that there is a high degree of association between U2 and U1 genes with a subset of coiled bodies. As investigated in human HeLa cells grown in monolayer culture, about 75% of nuclei had at least one U2 gene associated with a coiled body, and 45% had at least one U1 locus associated....
  • Compartmentalization of specific pre-mRNA metabolism: an emerging view

    Sunday, January 01, 1995
    It is increasingly recognized that the mammalian interphase nucleus contains a number of non-membranous compartments in which macromolecules associated with different nuclear functions concentrate. This review focuses on the function of a major compartment consisting of domains highly enriched in pre-mRNA splicing components and poly (A) RNA, commonly identified by the splicing factor, SC-35. RNA synthesis, as judged interdomain space. However, uridine labels several types of nuclear RNA, only a...
  • Nuclear RNA tracks: structural basis for transcription and splicing?

    Friday, October 01, 1993
    Knowledge of how the biochemical machineries governing metabolism and transport of several distinct classes of RNA may be organized and integrated into the structure of the nucleus remains very limited. Recent observations, including advances in the detection of specific nucleotide sequences directly within the nucleus, have heightened the long-standing interest in the structural organization of pre-mRNA transcription and processing.
  • Assignment of the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA gene to human chromosome 11q13

    Thursday, July 01, 1993
    A monoclonal antibody that was specific for a nuclear matrix protein was obtained and used to screen a human lambda gt11 expression library. Several partial cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. The sequence for this protein was shown to be identical to that of NuMA, a 236-kDa nuclear mitotic spindle apparatus protein. NuMA has been recently characterized by two independent studies, and is thought to be part of a family of proteins that is required for the completion of mitosis. In this...
  • A simple, rapid technique for precise mapping of multiple sequences in two colors using a single opt...

    Monday, April 01, 1991
    No abstract
  • Localizing DNA and RNA within nuclei and chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Monday, April 01, 1991
    The enormous potential of in situ hybridization derives from the unique ability of this approach to directly couple cytological and molecular information. In recent years, there has been a surge of success in powerful new applications, resulting from methodologic advances that bring the practical capabilities of this technology closer to its theoretical potential. A major advance has been improvements that enable, with a high degree of reproducibility and efficiency, precise visualization of...
  • Preservation of specific RNA distribution within the chromatin-depleted nuclear substructure demonst...

    Friday, March 01, 1991
    Biochemical fractionation procedures previously shown to remove 95% of cellular protein, DNA, and phospholipid, were combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to provide a critical evaluation of the retention and spatial preservation of specific primary transcripts within the chromatin-depleted nuclear substructure, operationally defined as the nuclear "matrix." This unique approach made it possible to directly address whether nuclear extraction procedures preserve, create, or destroy...
  • Distribution of myosin heavy chain mRNA in embryonic muscle tissue visualized by ultrastructural in ...

    Tuesday, January 01, 1991
    We have localized myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNAs in cells of intact embryonic chick muscle using high resolution in situ hybridization. Blocks of muscle were aldehyde-fixed prior to detergent treatment and hybridized with a biotinated cDNA probe, followed by colloidal gold-labeled antibodies, before embedment. Labeling was determined to represent MHC mRNA by extensive quantitative comparisons of electron micrographs from experimental and four different types of control samples. MHC mRNA was...
  • Interphase and metaphase resolution of different distances within the human dystrophin gene

    Friday, August 24, 1990
    Fluorescence in situ hybridization makes possible direct visualization of single sequences not only on chromosomes, but within decondensed interphase nuclei, providing a potentially powerful approach for high-resolution (1 Mb and below) gene mapping and the analysis of nuclear organization. Interphase mapping was able to extend the ability to resolve and order sequences up to two orders of magnitude beyond localization on banded or unbanded chromosomes. Sequences within the human dystrophin gene...
  • Detection of HIV-1-infected cells from patients using nonisotopic in situ hybridization

    Wednesday, November 01, 1989
    We have demonstrated that a sensitive, nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) assay can be used to detect HIV-infected cells from seropositive, asymptomatic individuals. Our assay is based on the detection of a biotinated HIV DNA probe hybridized to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using streptavidin and alkaline phosphatase to identify positive cells. This assay is rapid in that it can be performed within a day and is sensitive enough to...
  • Ultrastructural visualization of cytoskeletal mRNAs and their associated proteins using double-label...

    Thursday, June 01, 1989
    We have been able to visualize cytoskeletal messenger RNA molecules at high resolution using nonisotopic in situ hybridization followed by whole-mount electron microscopy. Biotinated cDNA probes for actin, tubulin, or vimentin mRNAs were hybridized to Triton-extracted chicken embryo fibroblasts and myoblasts. The cells were then exposed to antibodies against biotin followed by colloidal gold-conjugated antibodies and then critical-point dried. Identification of mRNA was possible using a probe...
  • Highly localized tracks of specific transcripts within interphase nuclei visualized by in situ hybri...

    Friday, May 05, 1989
    Use of in situ hybridization optimized for fluorescent detection of nuclear RNA has revealed a striking localization of specific viral RNAs within nuclei of cells latently infected with EBV. Several hundred kb of specific transcripts is sharply restricted to a small region of the nucleus, frequently in a curvilinear "track". Detection of nuclear RNA was evidenced by hybridization without denaturation, sensitivity to RNAase, inhibition by actinomycin D, and specificity of transcribed sequences....
  • Temporal resolution and sequential expression of muscle-specific genes revealed by in situ hybridiza...

    Monday, May 01, 1989
    The expression of muscle-specific mRNAs was analyzed directly within individual cells by in situ hybridization to chicken skeletal myoblasts undergoing differentiation in vitro. The probes detected mRNAs for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MHC) or the skeletal, cardiac, and beta isoforms of actin. Precise information as to the expression of these genes in individual cells was obtained and correlated directly with analyses of cell morphology and interactions, cell cycle stage, and...
  • Sensitive, high-resolution chromatin and chromosome mapping in situ: presence and orientation of two...

    Friday, January 15, 1988
    Here we describe development and application of highly sensitive fluorescence methodology for localization of single-copy sequences in interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes by nonisotopic in situ hybridization. Application of this methodology to the investigation of Epstein-Barr virus integration in the Namalwa lymphoma cell line has revealed two EBV genomes closely integrated at the known site on chromosome 1. Detecting sequences as small as 5 kb, we further demonstrate resolution within...
  • Intracellular distribution of histone mRNAs in human fibroblasts studied by in situ hybridization

    Friday, January 01, 1988
    We have used in situ hybridization to study the intracellular distribution of mRNAs for cell cycle-dependent core and H1 histone proteins in human WI-38 fibroblasts. Because histones are abundant nuclear proteins and histone mRNA expression is tightly coupled to DNA synthesis, it was of interest to determine whether histone mRNAs are localized near the nucleus. Cells were hybridized with tritiated DNA probes specific for either histone H1, histone H4, actin, or poly(A)+ mRNA and were processed...