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Membrane Trafficking

Rab11 endosomes contribute to mitotic spindle organization and orientation.

During interphase, Rab11-GTPase-containing endosomes recycle endocytic cargo. However, little is known about Rab11 endosomes in mitosis. Here, we show that Rab11 localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates dynein-dependent endosome localization at poles. We found that mitotic recycling endosomes bind γ-TuRC components and associate with tubulin in vitro. Rab11 depletion or dominant-negative Rab11 expression disrupts astral microtubules, delays mitosis, and redistributes spindle pole proteins. Reciprocally, constitutively active Rab11 increases astral microtubules, restores γ-tubulin spindle pole localization, and generates robust spindles. This suggests a role for Rab11 activity in spindle pole maturation during mitosis. Rab11 depletion causes misorientation of the mitotic spindle and the plane of cell division. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the organization of astral microtubules and the mitotic spindle through Rab11-dependent control of spindle pole assembly and function. We propose that Rab11 and its associated endosomes co-contribute to these processes through retrograde transport to poles by dynein.

The centrosome regulates the Rab11- dependent recycling endosome pathway at appendages of the mother centriole.

The recycling endosome localizes to a pericentrosomal region via microtubule-dependent transport. We previously showed that Sec15, an effector of the recycling endosome component, Rab11-GTPase, interacts with the mother centriole appendage protein, centriolin, suggesting an interaction between endosomes and centrosomes. Here we show that the recycling endosome associates with the appendages of the mother (older) centriole. We show that two mother centriole appendage proteins, centriolin and cenexin/ODF2, regulate association of the endosome components Rab11, the Rab11 GTP-activating protein Evi5, and the exocyst at the mother centriole. Development of an in vitro method for reconstituting endosome protein complexes onto isolated membrane-free centrosomes demonstrates that purified GTP-Rab11 but not GDP-Rab11 binds to mother centriole appendages in the absence of membranes. Moreover, centriolin depletion displaces the centrosomal Rab11 GAP, Evi5, and increases mother-centriole-associated Rab11; depletion of Evi5 also increases centrosomal Rab11. This indicates that centriolin localizes Evi5 to centriolar appendages to turn off centrosomal Rab11 activity. Finally, centriolin depletion disrupts recycling endosome organization and function, suggesting a role for mother centriole proteins in the regulation of Rab11 localization and activity at the mother centriole.

Centriolin anchoring of exocyst and SNARE complexes at the midbody is required for secretory-vesicle-mediated abscission.

The terminal step in cytokinesis, called abscission, requires resolution of the membrane connection between two prospective daughter cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that the coiled-coil protein centriolin localized to the midbody during cytokinesis and was required for abscission. Here we show that centriolin interacts with proteins of vesicle-targeting exocyst complexes and vesicle-fusion SNARE complexes. These complexes require centriolin for localization to a unique midbody-ring structure, and disruption of either complex inhibits abscission. Exocyst disruption induces accumulation of v-SNARE-containing vesicles at the midbody ring. In control cells, these v-SNARE vesicles colocalize with a GFP-tagged secreted polypeptide. The vesicles move to the midbody ring asymmetrically from one prospective daughter cell; the GFP signal is rapidly lost, suggesting membrane fusion; and subsequently the cell cleaves at the site of vesicle delivery/fusion. We propose that centriolin anchors protein complexes required for vesicle targeting and fusion and integrates membrane-vesicle fusion with abscission.