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Step 1 | 7 Cardiovascular System

7.1       Normal processes

7.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

7.1.2    organ structure and function     chambers, valves     cardiac cycle, mechanics, heart sounds, cardiac conduction     hemodynamics, including systemic, pulmonary, coronary, and blood volume     circulation in specific vascular beds

7.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function     heart muscle, metabolism, oxygen consumption, biochemistry, and secretory function (eg, atrial natriuretic peptide)     endothelium and secretory function, vascular smooth muscle, microcirculation, and lymph flow     mechanisms of atherosclerosis     neural and hormonal regulation of the heart, blood vessels, and blood volume, including responses to change in posture, exercise, and tissue metabolism

7.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

7.2       Abnormal processes

7.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders     infectious disorders (eg, endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis)     inflammatory and immunologic disorders (eg, acute rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, temporal arteritis)

7.2.2    traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, tamponade, valvular disease, obstructive cardiomyopathy)

7.2.3    neoplastic disorders

7.2.4    metabolic and regulatory disorders     dysrhythmias     systolic and diastolic dysfunction, low- and high-output heart failure, cor pulmonale (eg, dilated cardiomyopathies)     systemic hypertension     ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction     systemic hypotension and shock

7.2.5    vascular disorders (eg, aneurysms, occlusions, varicosities, atherosclerosis)

7.2.6    systemic diseases affecting the cardiovascular system (eg, amyloidosis, aortic dissection with Marfan syndrome, scleroderma)

7.2.7    congenital disorders of the heart and central vessels

7.3       Principles of therapeutics

7.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system     coronary and peripheral vasodilators     antiarrhythmic drugs     antihypertensive drugs     measures used to combat hypotension and shock     drugs affecting cholesterol and lipid metabolism     drugs affecting blood coagulation, thrombolytic agents     inotropic agents and treatment of heart failure     immunosuppressive and antimicrobial drugs     drugs to treat peripheral arterial disease

7.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, pacemakers, angioplasty, valves, grafts, other surgical procedures)

7.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

7.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, smoking, alcohol, ischemic heart disease, obesity, exercise, diet)

7.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, altered lifestyle)

7.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, stress)

7.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, hypertension)