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Step 1 | 2 Hematopoietic and Lymphoreticular Systems

2.1       Normal processes

2.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

2.1.2    organ structure and function

2.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function     production and function of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, O2 and CO2 transport, transport proteins     production and function of leukocytes and the lymphoreticular system     production and function of platelets     production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors

2.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

2.2       Abnormal processes

2.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders     infections of the blood, reticuloendothelial system, and lymphatics     allergic and anaphylactic reactions and other immunopathologic mechanisms     acquired disorders of immune deficiency     autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases (eg, Coombs positive hemolytic anemia, cryoglobulinemias, ITP)     anemia of chronic disease     transfusion complications, transplant rejection

2.2.2    traumatic and mechanical injury (eg, mechanical injury to erythrocytes, splenic rupture)

2.2.3    neoplastic disorders     lymphoma (eg, Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and lymphocytic leukemia     acute myelocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic states     chronic myelocytic leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders     multiple myeloma, dysproteinemias, amyloidosis

2.2.4    metabolic and regulatory disorders, including acquired and congenital     anemias and cytopenias (eg, iron deficiency anemia, hemoglobinopathies, hereditary spherocytosis)     cythemia     hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders (eg, coagulopathies, DIC)     bleeding secondary to platelet disorders (eg, von Willebrand)

2.2.5    vascular and endothelial disorders (eg, effects and complications of splenectomy, hypersplenism, TTP, hemolytic-uremic syndrome)

2.2.6    systemic disorders affecting the hematopoietic and lymphoreticular system (eg, nutritional deficiencies, systemic lupus erythematosus)

2.2.7    idiopathic disorders

2.3       Principles of therapeutics

2.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system     blood and blood products     treatment of anemia, drugs stimulating erythrocyte production (eg, erythropoietin)     drugs stimulating leukocyte production (eg, G-CSF, GM-CSF)     anticoagulants, thrombolytic drugs     antiplatelet drugs     antimicrobials (eg, antimalarials, anti-HIV)     antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs     drugs used to treat acquired disorders of immune responsiveness

2.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, splenectomy, chelating agents, radiation therapy for lymphomas, plasmapheresis)

2.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

2.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, diet, depression and immune responses, “blood doping” among athletes)

2.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, childhood leukemia)

2.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, lead)

2.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, herbal treatments with bone marrow depression)