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Step 1 | 11 Endocrine System

11.1     Normal processes

11.1.1  embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

11.1.2  organ structure and function   hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary gland   thyroid gland   parathyroid glands   adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla   pancreatic islets   ovary and testis   adipose tissue

11.1.3  cell/tissue structure and function, including hormone synthesis, secretion, action, and metabolism   peptide hormones   steroid hormones, including vitamin D   thyroid hormones   catecholamine hormones   renin-angiotensin system

11.1.4  repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

11.2     Abnormal processes

11.2.1  infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders   infectious disorders (eg, subacute thyroiditis, mumps)   immunologic disorders (eg, Graves disease, Hashimoto disease)   inflammatory disorders (eg, sarcoidosis)

11.2.2  traumatic and mechanical disorders

11.2.3  neoplastic disorders   pituitary (including craniopharyngioma)   thyroid   parathyroid   adrenal cortex   pancreatic islets   neural crest, pheochromocytoma

11.2.4  metabolic and regulatory processes   diabetes mellitus (types I and II), ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma   pituitary, hypothalamus (eg, central diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH, hypopituitarism, acromegaly)   thyroid (eg, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis), euthyroid sick syndrome   parathyroid (eg, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism), hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic bone disorders   pancreatic islet disorders (eg, hyperinsulinism)   adrenal disorders (eg, Cushing syndrome, adrenocortical insufficiency, hyperaldosteronism)

11.2.5  vascular disorders (eg, pituitary apoplexy)

11.2.6  systemic disorders affecting the endocrine system

11.2.7  idiopathic disorders (eg, hirsutism)

11.3     Principles of therapeutics

11.3.1  mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the endocrine system   hormones and hormone analogs   stimulators of hormone production (eg, sulfonylureas)   inhibitors of hormone production (eg, thiouracils)   hormone antagonists   potentiators of hormone action (eg, thiazolidinediones)   antiobesity agents

11.3.2  other therapeutic modalities (eg, surgery, radiation)

11.4     Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

11.4.1  emotional and behavioral factors (eg, compliance in diabetes mellitus, factitious use of insulin, psychogenic polydipsia)

11.4.2  influence on person, family, and society

11.4.3  occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, radiation exposure, iodine deficiency)

11.4.4  gender and ethnic factors