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Step 1 | 8 Gastrointestinal System

8.1       Normal processes

8.1.1    embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

8.1.2    organ structure and function

8.1.2.1     anatomy of alimentary canal, including mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
8.1.2.2     liver and biliary system, including enterohepatic circulation
8.1.2.3     salivary glands and exocrine pancreas
8.1.2.4     motility, including vomiting and defecation
8.1.2.5     digestion and absorption

8.1.3    cell/tissue structure and function

8.1.3.1     endocrine and neural regulatory functions, including GI hormones (eg, gastrin)
8.1.3.2     salivary, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic secretory products, including enzymes, proteins, bile salts, and processes
8.1.3.3     synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes

8.1.4    repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

8.1.5    gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora

8.2       Abnormal processes

8.2.1    infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

8.2.1.1     infectious disorders (eg, peritonitis, hepatitis, gingivostomatitis, peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, traveler's diarrhea, food poisoning)
8.2.1.2     inflammatory disorders (eg, cholecystitis, pancreatitis)
8.2.1.3     immunologic disorders (eg, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis)

8.2.2    traumatic and mechanical disorders

8.2.2.1     malocclusion
8.2.2.2     hiatal hernia
8.2.2.3     obstruction (eg, volvulus, intussusception, esophageal atresia, annular pancreas, postsurgical obstruction)
8.2.2.4     perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma
8.2.2.5     inguinal, femoral, and abdominal wall hernias
8.2.2.6     esophageal and intestinal diverticula (eg, Meckel diverticulum)

8.2.3    neoplastic disorders

8.2.3.1     benign (eg, polyps)
8.2.3.2     malignant

8.2.4    metabolic and  regulatory disorders

8.2.4.1     motility disorders (eg, esophageal reflux, neuropathy, achalasia, irritable bowel syndrome, paralytic ileus, Hirschsprung disease)
8.2.4.2     malabsorption (eg, pancreatic insufficiency, sprue, lactose intolerance)
8.2.4.3     hepatic failure, jaundice, encephalopathy, cirrhosis, ascites, biliary atresia)
8.2.4.4     cholelithiasis, cholestasis

8.2.5    vascular disorders

8.2.5.1     portal hypertension and esophageal varices
8.2.5.2     hemorrhoids, anal fissure
8.2.5.3     ischemia, angiodysplasia, thromboses, vasculitis

8.2.6    systemic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system

8.3       Principles of therapeutics

8.3.1    mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal system

8.3.1.1     treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux (eg, antacids, antisecretory drugs, mucosal protective agents, antibiotics)
8.3.1.2     drugs to alter gastrointestinal motility (eg, cathartics, antidiarrheal drugs, antiemetic drugs, prokinetic drugs)
8.3.1.3     fluid replacement (eg, oral rehydration)
8.3.1.4     pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis
8.3.1.5     drugs for treatment of hepatic failure (eg, lactulose) and biliary disease (eg, drugs to dissolve gallstones)
8.3.1.6     anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial drugs

8.3.2    other therapeutic modalities (eg, surgical procedures, stents, feeding tubes)

8.4       Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

8.4.1    emotional and behavioral factors (eg, peptic ulcer, encopresis, Monday morning stomach)

8.4.2    influence on person, family, and society (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel disease, pancreatitis and alcohol, chronic laxative abuse)

8.4.3    occupational and other environmental risk factors

8.4.4    gender and ethnic factors (eg, diets)