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Alpha Cell Function and Gene Expression Compromised in Type 1 Diabetes According to Scientists Including Drs. Harlan and Greiner

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) development and progression in humans is poorly defined at the cellular level.  To better understand the functional and molecular properties of islets from donors with T1D, UMass Diabetes Center of Excellence co-directors, David Harlan, MD and Dale Greiner, PhD, in collaboration with established investigators from a consortium of institutions throughout the country lead by Drs. Marcela Brissova and Alvin C. Powers at Vanderbilt University, used an approach that studied the pancreas and isolated islets from the same donor with T1D.  This allowed them to better analyze the development, properties and behavior of T1D donor islets. 

Their findings were published in Cell Reports March 2018, reporting alpha cell function and gene expression are compromised in type 1 diabetes.

Many patients with T1D have residual beta cells that remain long after disease onset, producing small amounts of insulin.  That said, individuals with T1D also develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia.  By studying the pancreas and isolated islets from the same T1D individual, this research found that remnant beta cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion.  However, the function of T1D alpha cells (which produce glucagon) display impaired glucagon secretion and altered gene expression.  Further, the researchers found that unlike rodents, alpha to beta cell conversion in human T1D is rare.  The T1D alpha cell functionality did show improvement when placed in an environment of normal blood glucose.

Alpha Cell Function and Gene Expression Are Compromised in Type 1 Diabetes

Brissova M, Haliyur R, Saunders D, Shrestha S, Dai C, Blodgett DM, Bottino R, Campbell-Thompson M, Aramandla R, Poffenberger G, Lindner J, Pan FC, von Herrath MG, Greiner DL, Shultz LD, Sanyoura M, Philipson LH, Atkinson M, Harlan DM, Levy SE, Prasad N, Stein R, Powers AC.Cell Rep. 2018 Mar 6;22(10):2667-2676. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.02.032.PMID: 29514095 

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