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Welcome to the PHARE Study Group’s Compendium of MDS Scales

We have developed this Compendium of MDS Scales to assist ourselves and others to use consistent methodology for defining a variety of scales included in, or developed from, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), versions 2 and 3.0.


The Compendium includes:

  1. Original citations for the scale as initially defined, and as clarified with later publications. 
  2. Documentation of the basic properties of each scale (e.g., which MDS forms are eligible, the range of the scale, and categories used for interpretation)
  3. SAS code developed independently by at least two programmers (usually three), with resolution of any discrepancies identified.
  4. Documentation of decisions we have made to implement these scales, as well as background information and the constituent variables included in each scale.
  5. Guidance about limitations to consider when adopting a given scale.
  6. Documentation of the distribution of each scale, in relation to MDS assessment type, calendar quarter, and other relevant factors specific to each scale.


The PHARE Study Group is grateful for support from the National Institute on Aging (R01-AG071692-03 “Social Connectedness and Social Isolation in Nursing Home Residents”) for funding to support development and dissemination of this Compendium of MDS Scales.


Dr. Kate L. Lapane was the prime mover behind this project. A goal of hers for decades, the opportunity to undertake the project emerged in the Spring of 2023.


Programmers (in alphabetical order):

            Adrita Barooah

  Bill M. Jesdale, PhD

            Kate L. Lapane, PhD

  Jacob N. Hunnicut, PhD

            Emily Lim

            Shao-Hsien Liu, PhD

            Deborah Mack, PhD

            Emily McPhillips

            Natalia N. Nielsen

            Anyah Prasad

            Shan Qu

            Christine Ulbricht, PhD

            Shu Xu

            Yiyang Yuan, PhD, 

            Kai Tjia


Website Design and Implementation:

            Natalia N. Nielsen

            Emily McPhillips

            Kelley Baron

            Bill M. Jesdale, PhD

            Catherine Dube, PhD


To cite our work:

            Kate L. Lapane and the PHARE Study Group (2024). Compendium of MDS Scales. Available at: