Translational: human - Modality: functional connectivity - Research Area: nicotine addiction

Huang W, King JA, Ursprung WW, Zheng S, Zhang N, Kennedy DN, Ziedonis D, DiFranza JR 

The development and expression of physical nicotine dependence corresponds to structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate-precuneus pathway. Brain Behav. 2014 May;4(3):408-17.

Results from independent component analysis (ICA), particularly in the default mode network (DMN). (A) Components that formed the DMN, including the posterior DMN and the anterior DMN. (B) Difference within the DMN between nonsmokers and smokers during abstinence, shown in binary mask. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers in the abstinent condition showed enhanced connectivity in their DMN to areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, middle frontal area, precentral gyrus, and the medial frontal gyrus. (C) Difference in smokers' DMN between abstinent (withdrawal) and satiated conditions. When compared to the satiated condition, DMN of smokers in the abstinent condition had enhanced connectivity to areas of the ACC, precuneus, medial orbital frontal area, insula, superior medial frontal area, middle temporal gyrus, and superior frontal area. Red binary masks in B and C indicate differences at a significance level of P < 0.05.