Chemical substance produced during breakdown of body fat.
Abnormal state; too much acid in the blood. Can be a serious complication of insulin dependent diabetes.
Blood protein that may appear in urine when kidneys are damaged.
Glucagon-producing cells of the Islets of Langerhans.
Individual food units that combine to make Arteriosclerosis or Atherosclerosis: Thickening and rigidification of artery walls. See Chapter 12.
Fungus infection of feet.
Insulin-producing cells of the Islets of Langerhans. Details are in Chapter 1.
A kind of oral hypoglycemic drug. Details are in Chapter 9.
Hard skin thickening due to friction or pressure. Calluses on the feet are discussed in Chapter 11.
Unit used to express heat or energy value of food. Calories are discussed in Chapter 6.
One of three major food substances. Carbohydrates in the diet are discussed in Chapter 6. Carbohydrates are the major component of the diabetic Starch/Bread List.
Clouding of lens of eye. See Chapter 12.
Unit of body structure.
Fatty substance normally present in blood. See Chapter 6.
Pains in calf muscles due to decrease in blood supply. See Chapter 12.
Loss of consciousness.
Impaired blood supply to heart. See Chapter 12.
Regular insulin. See Chapter 8.
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
A physician who specializes in treating people with diabetes.
Test for sugar in urine.
A professional who advises people with special health needs on the types and amounts of foods to eat.
One of three major food substances. Fats in the diet are discussed in Chapter 6. Fats are the major component of the diabetic Fat List.
Indigestible part of fruit, vegetables, cereals, and grains.
Foods grouped together due to similarities in nutritional vale. Food exchanges are discussed in detail in Chapter 6.
Carbohydrate sugar found in fruits and candy. Fruit exchanges are listed in Chapter 6.
Death of tissue, usually due to loss of blood supply.
Microscopic part of kidney that filters blood.
Hormone produced by alpha cells to release glycogen stored in liver and muscles. Glucagon injections are used to treat serious insulin reactions in persons with diabetes.
Basic sugar used to fuel body cells. Details are in Chapter 1.
Glucose tolerance test:
Test for detecting diabetes.
Form in which most carbohydrate is stored in the body.
Sugar in urine.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test:
A blood test that measures a person's average blood glucose over the past 2-3 months.
Metric unit of weight.
Inheritance of traits from ancestors; major cause of diabetes. See Chapter 1.
Chemical substance produced in body glands and circulated in blood.
High concentration of sugar in blood (hyper = high).
Low concentration of sugar in blood (hypo = low). See Chapter 8 for how to avoid and how to treat hypoglycemia.
Inability to sustain an erection.
Hormone produced by beta cells to facilitate entry of glucose into body cells. Details are in Chapter 8.
Release of certain hormones (catecholamines) in response to hypoglycemia. Treating and avoiding reactions is discussed in Chapter 8.
Islets of Langerhans:
Clusters of alpha, beta, delta, and polypeptide cells throughout the pancreas.
Ketone in urine.
Keto-Stix: Test for ketone (acetone) in urine.
KetoDiastix: Test for both ketone and sugar in urine.
Level at which sugar "spills" over into urine. Explained in Chapter 1.
Kussmaul breathing: Deep, rapid breathing seen in diabetic acidosis.
Lactose: Milk sugar.
Intermediate-acting insulin. See Chapter 8.
: Guide to food exchanges allowed for each meal and snack. Details are in Chapter 6.
Metabolism: Conversion of food substances to energy.
Monilia: Fungus infection (candida) common in diabetes, frequently in the vagina.
Nephropathy: Degenerative kidney disease that may occur in long-term diabetes. See Chapter 12.
Neuropathy: Disorder of nerves causing loss of sensation and reflexes and/or burning or stabbing pain, especially at night. See Chapter 12.
Intermediate-acting insulin. See Chapter 8.
Oral hypoglycemia agents:
Oral drugs that lower blood sugar by increasing insulin and/or increasing insulin effectiveness. Details are in Chapter 9.
Gland deep in abdomen, behind stomach, that produces hormones (glucagon) and digestive enzymes.
Polydipsia: Excessive thirst.
Polyphagia: Excessive hunger.
Polyuria: Excessive urination.
Post-prandial: After a meal.
One of the three major food substances; food used to build body tissues.
Fast-acting insulin. See Chapter 8.
Retinopathy: Disorders of retina (nerve tissue in the eye) seen in diabetes. See Chapter 12.
Saccharin: Artificial sweetener.
Rapid-acting insulin. See Chapter 8.
Sorbitol: Artificial sweetener.
Sucrose: Ordinary table sugar; breaks down to glucose and fructose.
Oral hypoglycemic drug. Details are in Chapter 9.
Tes-Tape: Test for sugar in urine.
Long-acting insulin. See Chapter 8.